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TEMPLATE DESIGN © Identifying Noun Product Features that Imply Opinions Lei Zhang Bing Liu Department of Computer Science, University of Illinois at Chicago Abstract Identifying domain-dependent opinion words is a key problem in opinion mining and has been studied by several researchers. However, existing work has been focused on adjectives and to some extent verbs. Limited work has been done on nouns and noun phrases. We found: in many domains, nouns and noun phrases that indicate product features may also imply opinions. these nouns are not SUBJECTIVE but OBJECTIVE. Their involved sentences are also objective sentences but imply positive or negative opinions. Identifying such nouns/noun phrases and their polarities is very challenging but critical for effective opinion mining. Goal : Study Objective Terms and Sentences that Imply Sentiments To our knowledge, this problem has not been studied. We present an initial method to deal with the problem. Introduction Proposed Method We designed the following two steps to identify noun product features that imply positive or negative opinions. Step 1: Candidate identification. This step determines the surrounding sentiment context of each noun feature. The intuition is that if a feature occurs in negative (respectively positive) opinion contexts significantly more frequently than in positive (or negative) opinion contexts, we can infer that its polarity is negative (or positive). A statistical test is used to test the significance. This step thus produces a list of candidate features with positive opinions and a list of candidate features with negative opinions. Step 2: Pruning. This step prunes the two lists. The idea is that when a noun product feature is directly modified by both positive and negative opinion words, it is unlikely to be an opinionated product feature. We utilize dependency parser to find the modifying relation. Feature-based Sentiment Analysis Step 1 needs the feature-based sentiment analysis capability. We adopt the lexicon-based approach in (Ding et al., 2008) for this work, which utilizes opinion words to identify opinion polarity expressed on product features. The method (Ding et al., 2008) basically combines opinion words in the sentence to assign a sentiment to each product feature. Aggregating opinions on a feature where w i is an opinion word, L is the set of all opinion words and s is the sentence that contains the feature f, and dis(w i, f) is the distance between feature f and opinion word w i in s. w i.SO is the semantic orientation (polarity) of word w i. Several language constructs need special handling. Rules of Opinions E.g., Negation rule : the negation word or phrase usually reverses the opinion. But there are exceptions: negated feeling sentence e.g. “ I am not bothered by the hump on the mattress ” But clause rule : the opinion before “but” and after “but” are usually the opposite to each other. Decreasing and increasing rules Decreased Neg → Positive e.g. “ My problem have certainly diminished ” Decreased Pos → Negative e.g. “” These tires reduce the fun of driving ” Handing Context-Dependent Opinions Context-dependent opinion words must be determined by its contexts. We tackle this problem by using the global information rather than only the local information in the current sentence. We use a conjunction rule. e.g. “ This camera is very nice and has a long battery life ”. We can infer that “long” is positive for “battery life” because it is conjoined with the positive word “nice”. Determining Product Features that Imply Opinions We can identify opinion sentences for each product feature in context, which contains both positive-opinionated sentences and negative-opinionated sentences. We then determine candidate product features implying opinions by checking the percentage of either positive-opinionated sentences or negative-opinionated sentences among all opinionated sentences. Heuristic: if a noun feature is more likely to occur in positive (or negative) opinion contexts (sentences), it is more likely to be an opinionated noun feature. Statistical test : (confidence level : 0.95) p 0 is the hypothesized value (0.7 in our case), p is the sample proportion, and n is the sample size, which is the total number of opinionated sentences that contain the noun feature. Pruning Non-Opinionated Features Observation: For features with implied opinion, people often have a fixed opinion, either positive or negative but not both. We can finding direct modification relations (modifying words) using a dependency parser. Two direct relations are used. Type 1: O → O-Dep → F It means O depends on F through a relation O-Dep. e.g. “ This TV has a good picture quality.” Type 2: O → O-Dep → H ← F-Dep ← F It means both O and F depends on H through relation O-Dep and F-Dep respectively. e.g. “ The springs of the mattress are bad. ” Experiments Conclusion The experimental data sets we use. We compare our method with a baseline method which decides a noun feature’s polarity only by its modifying opinion words(Tab 2). Tab 3 and Tab 4 give the results of noun features implying positive and negative opinions separately (proposed method). We use ranking to improve the precision of the top-ranked ( ) candidates. (Z-rank: statistical value Z; R-rank: negative/positive sentence ratio) This paper proposed a method to identify noun product features that imply opinions/sentiments. Conceptually, this work studied the problem of objective terms and sentences with implied opinions. This problem is important because without identifying such opinions, the recall of opinion mining suffers. Our proposed method determines feature polarity not only by opinion words that modify the features but also by its surrounding context. Experimental results show the proposed method is promising. Opinion words (e.g. “good”, “bad”) are words that convey the positive or negative polarities. They are critical for opinion mining. The key difficulty in finding such words that opinions expressed by many of them are domain or context dependent.. Existing approaches for finding opinion words focus on adjectives : Corpus-based approaches Dictionary-based approaches Observation : In some domains, product features which are indicated by nouns have implied opinions although they are not subjective. For example: “ Within a month, a valley formed in the middle of the mattress.” Here “valley” indicates the quality of the mattress (a product feature) and also implies a negative opinion. The opinion implied by “valley” cannot be found by current techniques. Challenge : Objective words (or sentences) that imply opinions are very difficult to recognize because their recognition typically requires the commonsense knowledge of the application domain.
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