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LOGO LESSON 2 REASONING By Miss.Manita Modphai

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Contents Inductive Reasoning 1 Deductive Reasoning 2 Relation with Venn Diagram 4 Type of Argument 3

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Vocabularies for Reasoning Inductive Deductive Investigation Analyzing อุปนัย นิรนัย การตรวจสอบ การวิเคราะห์

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Vocabularies for Reasoning Statement Premise Conclusion Result ประโยค / ข้อความ เหตุ ข้อสรุป ผลลัพธ์

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Vocabularies for Reasoning Observation Argument Valid Invalid การสังเกต การอ้าง เหตุผล สมเหตุสมผล ไม่ สมเหตุสมผล

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Inductive Reasoning Inductive Reasoning is the process of reaching a general conclusion by examing specific examples or after analysing a set of servation Premises of the inductive reasoning are purely based on the observations. This type of inductive reasoning is used in … Method of formulating suggestion. Very vital for procedural innovation. Finding theories.

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Inductive Reasoning Ex1 Calculate the missing two values C and D in the given terms Using the inductive reasoning method C = 57 + 14 = 71 D = 71 + 14 = 85 15 29 43 57 C C D D +14

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Inductive Reasoning Ex2 Calculate the missing two values C and D in the given terms Using the inductive reasoning method E = 31 + 32 = 63 1 1 3 3 7 7 15 31 E E +2 +4 +8 +16 +32

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Inductive Reasoning Ex3 Calculate the missing values in the given terms 1 x 1 = 1 11 x 11= 121 111 x 111 = 12321 111111 x 111111 =……………………… Using the inductive reasoning method E = 31 + 32 = 63 …. 12345654321

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Inductive Reasoning Ex3 Calculate the missing values in the given pattern. Using the inductive reasoning method (a + b) x (a – b) = C (7 + 2) x (7 – 2) = 9 x 5 = 45 2 2 3 3 1 1 c c a a b b 5 5 21 2 2 6 6 27 3 3 7 7 ? ? 2 2

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Inductive Reasoning Ex4 What is the sum of the following numbers? 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 +... + 98 + 99 + 100 1 + 100 = 101 2 + 99 = 101 3 + 98 = 101 The sum of 1 to 100 = 101 x 50 = 5050 50 pairs ….

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Inductive Reasoning From Ex4... The sum of 1 to n is... 1 + 2 + 3 +... + (n – 2) + (n – 1) + n 1 + n 2 + (n – 1) = 1 + n 3 + (n – 2) = 1 + n …. n pairs 2 n pairs 2 The sum of 1 to n = n(n + 1) 2 The sum of 1 to n = n(n + 1) 2

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Inductive Reasoning Find the sum of the following numbers. 1) 1 + 2 + 3 +... + 324 2) 51 + 52 + 53 +... + 199 3) 2 + 4 + 6 + 8 +... + 70 4) 5 + 10 + 15 + 20 +... + 130 5) 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 +... + 121

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Homework Let’s do Homework in your worksheet on page 1 to 3

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Deductive Reasoning Deductive Reasoning is a methodology or technique that is used to construct a series of steps usually called as deductive arguments or premises based on which the final result or conclusion is achieved.

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Deductive Reasoning Example 1 1. The average age of women living in Thailand is 75. 2. Mrs. Mary is a women living in Thailand. 3. Therefore, Mrs. Mary is supposed to live till the age of 75. Premise Conclusion

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Deductive Reasoning Example 2 1. X is a natural number and perfectly divisible by Y. 2. Y is a natural number and perfectly divisible by Z. 3. Therefore, X is a natural number and perfectly divisible by Z. Premise Conclusion

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Argument An argument consists of a set of statements. The statement can be a short sentence or phrase that is used to express certain arguments. An argument are including 2 Part 1) Premise 1 Premise 2 2)Conclusion ….

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Type of Argument Type of Argument are 2 type a valid argument is one where the conclusion follows from the premises. an Invalid is the rule of logic do not apply. Valid Invalid

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www.themegallery.com LOGO Argument Example 1 Premise : 1. All birds have wings. 2. A parrot is a bird. Conclusion : Therefore, a parrot has wings. Ans : Valid argument

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Argument Example 2 Premise : 1. All man are mortal. 2. Socrates is a man. Conclusion : Therefore, Socrates is mortal. Ans : Valid argument

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Argument Example 3 Premise : 1. All P are Q. 2. S is a P. Conclusion : Therefore, S is a Q. Ans : Valid argument

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Argument Example 4 Premise : 1. If x = 8 Conclusion : Therefore, x – 3 = 2 Ans : Invalid argument

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Argument Example 5 Complete the following argument with a suitable conclusion. Premise : 1. All fruits are food. 2. Apple is fruit. Conclusion : Apple is food.

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Argument Example 6 Complete the following argument with a suitable conclusion. Premise : 1. All men are engineer. 2. All engineers are clever. 3. Sam is a man. Conclusion : Sam is clever.

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Homework Let’s do Homework in your worksheet on page 4 to 5

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LOGO

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Deductive vs. Inductive Logic This course is about deductive logic. But it is important to know something about inductive logic.

Deductive vs. Inductive Logic This course is about deductive logic. But it is important to know something about inductive logic.

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