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LOGO LESSON 2 REASONING By Miss.Manita Modphai

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Contents Inductive Reasoning 1 Deductive Reasoning 2 Relation with Venn Diagram 4 Type of Argument 3

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Vocabularies for Reasoning Inductive Deductive Investigation Analyzing อุปนัย นิรนัย การตรวจสอบ การวิเคราะห์

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Vocabularies for Reasoning Statement Premise Conclusion Result ประโยค / ข้อความ เหตุ ข้อสรุป ผลลัพธ์

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Vocabularies for Reasoning Observation Argument Valid Invalid การสังเกต การอ้าง เหตุผล สมเหตุสมผล ไม่ สมเหตุสมผล

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Inductive Reasoning Inductive Reasoning is the process of reaching a general conclusion by examing specific examples or after analysing a set of servation Premises of the inductive reasoning are purely based on the observations. This type of inductive reasoning is used in … Method of formulating suggestion. Very vital for procedural innovation. Finding theories.

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Inductive Reasoning Ex1 Calculate the missing two values C and D in the given terms Using the inductive reasoning method C = 57 + 14 = 71 D = 71 + 14 = 85 15 29 43 57 C C D D +14

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Inductive Reasoning Ex2 Calculate the missing two values C and D in the given terms Using the inductive reasoning method E = 31 + 32 = 63 1 1 3 3 7 7 15 31 E E +2 +4 +8 +16 +32

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Inductive Reasoning Ex3 Calculate the missing values in the given terms 1 x 1 = 1 11 x 11= 121 111 x 111 = 12321 111111 x 111111 =……………………… Using the inductive reasoning method E = 31 + 32 = 63 …. 12345654321

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Inductive Reasoning Ex3 Calculate the missing values in the given pattern. Using the inductive reasoning method (a + b) x (a – b) = C (7 + 2) x (7 – 2) = 9 x 5 = 45 2 2 3 3 1 1 c c a a b b 5 5 21 2 2 6 6 27 3 3 7 7 ? ? 2 2

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Inductive Reasoning Ex4 What is the sum of the following numbers? 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 +... + 98 + 99 + 100 1 + 100 = 101 2 + 99 = 101 3 + 98 = 101 The sum of 1 to 100 = 101 x 50 = 5050 50 pairs ….

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Inductive Reasoning From Ex4... The sum of 1 to n is... 1 + 2 + 3 +... + (n – 2) + (n – 1) + n 1 + n 2 + (n – 1) = 1 + n 3 + (n – 2) = 1 + n …. n pairs 2 n pairs 2 The sum of 1 to n = n(n + 1) 2 The sum of 1 to n = n(n + 1) 2

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Inductive Reasoning Find the sum of the following numbers. 1) 1 + 2 + 3 +... + 324 2) 51 + 52 + 53 +... + 199 3) 2 + 4 + 6 + 8 +... + 70 4) 5 + 10 + 15 + 20 +... + 130 5) 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 +... + 121

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Homework Let’s do Homework in your worksheet on page 1 to 3

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Deductive Reasoning Deductive Reasoning is a methodology or technique that is used to construct a series of steps usually called as deductive arguments or premises based on which the final result or conclusion is achieved.

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Deductive Reasoning Example 1 1. The average age of women living in Thailand is 75. 2. Mrs. Mary is a women living in Thailand. 3. Therefore, Mrs. Mary is supposed to live till the age of 75. Premise Conclusion

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Deductive Reasoning Example 2 1. X is a natural number and perfectly divisible by Y. 2. Y is a natural number and perfectly divisible by Z. 3. Therefore, X is a natural number and perfectly divisible by Z. Premise Conclusion

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Argument An argument consists of a set of statements. The statement can be a short sentence or phrase that is used to express certain arguments. An argument are including 2 Part 1) Premise 1 Premise 2 2)Conclusion ….

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Type of Argument Type of Argument are 2 type a valid argument is one where the conclusion follows from the premises. an Invalid is the rule of logic do not apply. Valid Invalid

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www.themegallery.com LOGO Argument Example 1 Premise : 1. All birds have wings. 2. A parrot is a bird. Conclusion : Therefore, a parrot has wings. Ans : Valid argument

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Argument Example 2 Premise : 1. All man are mortal. 2. Socrates is a man. Conclusion : Therefore, Socrates is mortal. Ans : Valid argument

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Argument Example 3 Premise : 1. All P are Q. 2. S is a P. Conclusion : Therefore, S is a Q. Ans : Valid argument

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Argument Example 4 Premise : 1. If x = 8 Conclusion : Therefore, x – 3 = 2 Ans : Invalid argument

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Argument Example 5 Complete the following argument with a suitable conclusion. Premise : 1. All fruits are food. 2. Apple is fruit. Conclusion : Apple is food.

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Argument Example 6 Complete the following argument with a suitable conclusion. Premise : 1. All men are engineer. 2. All engineers are clever. 3. Sam is a man. Conclusion : Sam is clever.

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Homework Let’s do Homework in your worksheet on page 4 to 5

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