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Syntax: The Sentence Patterns of Language Richard Ortega.

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1 Syntax: The Sentence Patterns of Language Richard Ortega

2 Grammatical vs. Ungrammatical  Well-formed or grammatical sentence: a sequence of words that conform to the rules of syntax.  Ill-formed or ungrammatical sentence: a sequence of words that violate the rules of syntax

3 Grammatical or Ungrammatical: 1. The boy found the ball 2. The boy found quickly 3. The boy found in the house 4. The boy found the ball in the house 5. Disa slept the baby 6. Disa slept soundly Find: Transitive verb (with object) Sleep: Intransitive verb (no object)

4 THE EIGHT PARTS OF SPEECHPARTS OF SPEECH noun : (abbrev. n.) names a person, place, thing, or idea verb : (abbrev. v.) expresses action, condition, or state of being adjective : (abbrev. adj.) describes, modifies, or limits nouns and pronouns adverb : (abbrev. adv.) describes, modifies, or limits a verb, adj. or other adv. pronoun : (abbrev. prn.) substitutes for a noun and functions as one preposition : (abbrev. p.) relates a noun or pronoun to another word in a sentence conjunction : (abbrev. con.) links words, phrases and clauses interjection : (abbrev. int.) expresses a strong emotion or commands attention Vocabulary words function words

5 Identify the part of speech for each of the following: like tired but I dude, really dig grammar Wow! prep. adj. n. conj. interject. prn. adv. v. n.

6 baby A part of speech is always determined by its function in the sentence Jim and Sara to play video games.love The mother gave her infant food. A dictionary can be a good friend, when in doubtdictionary

7 Syntactic Categories (1) Lexical categories  Noun (N)  Verb (V)  Adjective (A)  Preposition (P)  Adverb (Adv) Examples  moisture, policy  melt, remain  good, intelligent  to, near  slowly, now

8 Syntactic Categories (2) Non-lexical categories  Determiner (Det)  Conjunction (Conj)  Complementizer (Comp) Examples  the, this  and, or  that (clause)

9 Indicate the category of each word in the following sentences. a. The glass suddenly broke. b. A jogger ran towards the end of the lane. c. The peaches never appear quite ripe. d. Gillian will play the trumpet and the drums in the orchestra. Det / N / Adv / V Det / N / V / P / Det / N / P / Det / N N / Aux / V / Det / N / Conj / Det / N / P / Det / N Det / N / Adv / V / Adv / A

10 Phrases  NP : Noun Phrase The car, a clever student  VP : Verb Phrase study hard, play the guitar  PP : Prepositional Phrase in the class, above the earth  AP : Adjective Phrase very tall, quite certain

11 Phrase Structure Rules  NP  (Det) N (PP)  PP  P NP The bus (NP) The NDet bus The bus in the yard NP The NDet bus PP in NPP the DetN yard

12 Phrase Structure Rules  VP  V (NP) (PP)  S  NP (Aux) VP took the money (VP) took NPV took the money from the bank VP took NP V PP from NPP the DetN bank the DetN money the DetN money

13 Draw the tree diagram. 1. repaired the telephone 2. the success of the program 3. a film about pollution 4. move towards the window 5. cast a spell on the broomstick

14 The main structure rules 1. S  NP (Aux) VP 2. NP  (Det) (AP) N (PP) 3. VP  V (NP) (PP) (Adv) (CP) 4. PP  P NP 5. AP  Adj (PP) N 6. CP  Comp S

15 Example (1) The old tree swayed in the wind old VPP in NPP the DetN wind The N swayed S NPVP DetAdj tree

16 Example (2) The children put the toy in the box VPP in NPP the DetN boxThe N put S NPVP Det children NP the DetN toy

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