Presentation on theme: "Syntax: The Sentence Patterns of Language"— Presentation transcript:
1 Syntax: The Sentence Patterns of Language Richard Ortega
2 Grammatical vs. Ungrammatical Well-formed or grammatical sentence: a sequence of words that conform to the rules of syntax.Ill-formed or ungrammatical sentence: a sequence of words that violate the rules of syntax
3 Grammatical or Ungrammatical: 1. The boy found the ball2. The boy found quickly3. The boy found in the house4. The boy found the ball in the house5. Disa slept the baby6. Disa slept soundlyFind: Transitive verb (with object)Sleep: Intransitive verb (no object)
4 THE EIGHT PARTS OF SPEECH verb: (abbrev. v.) expresses action, condition, or state of beingnoun: (abbrev. n.) names a person, place, thing, or ideaVocabulary wordspronoun: (abbrev. prn.) substitutes for a noun and functions as oneadjective: (abbrev. adj.) describes, modifies, or limits nouns and pronounsadverb: (abbrev. adv.) describes, modifies, or limits a verb, adj. or other adv.preposition: (abbrev. p.) relates a noun or pronoun to another word in a sentenceconjunction: (abbrev. con.) links words, phrases and clausesfunction wordsinterjection: (abbrev. int.) expresses a strong emotion or commands attention
5 Identify the part of speech for each of the following: likeprep.tiredadj.dude,n.butconj.Wow!interject.Iprn.reallyadv.digv.grammarn.
6 A part of speech is always determined by its function in the sentence The mother gave her infant food.babyJim and Sara to play video games.loveA dictionary can be a good friend, when in doubt
9 Indicate the category of each word in the following sentences. a. The glass suddenly broke.b. A jogger ran towards the end of the lane.c. The peaches never appear quite ripe.d. Gillian will play the trumpet and the drums in the orchestra.Det / N / Adv / VDet / N / V / P / Det / N / P / Det / NDet / N / Adv / V / Adv / AN / Aux / V / Det / N / Conj / Det / N / P / Det / N
10 Phrases NP : Noun Phrase The car, a clever student VP : Verb Phrase study hard, play the guitarPP : Prepositional Phrasein the class, above the earthAP : Adjective Phrasevery tall, quite certain
11 Phrase Structure Rules NP (Det) N (PP)PP P NPThe bus in the yardNPThe bus (NP)DetNDetNPPThebusPNPDetNThebusintheyard
12 Phrase Structure Rules VP V (NP) (PP)S NP (Aux) VPtook the money from the bankVPtook the money (VP)VNPVNPPPDetNDetNPNPtookthemoneyDetNtookthemoneyfromthebank
13 Draw the tree diagram. 1. repaired the telephone 2. the success of the program3. a film about pollution4. move towards the window5. cast a spell on the broomstick
14 The main structure rules 1. S NP (Aux) VP2. NP (Det) (AP) N (PP)3. VP V (NP) (PP) (Adv) (CP)4. PP P NP5. AP Adj (PP) N6. CP Comp S
15 Example (1) The old tree swayed in the wind S NP VP Det Adj N V PP P
16 Example (2) The children put the toy in the box S NP VP Det N V NP PP
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