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1 TEN STEPS to ADVANCED READING SECOND EDITION Use the tab key, space bar, arrow keys, or page up/down to move through the slides. [Go to “Slide Show” pulldown menu and click on “Play from Start.”] This presentation should be viewed in “Slide Show” view to display properly. These slides are optimized for PowerPoint versions 12 (2007/2008) and 14 (2010/2011). If viewed in earlier versions of PowerPoint, some slides may not display properly.

2 TEN STEPS to ADVANCED READING SECOND EDITION John Langan © 2013 Townsend Press

3 SUPPORTING DETAILS Chapter 2

4 CHAPTER 2 Supporting Details What Are Supporting Details? Supporting details are reasons, examples, facts, steps, or other kinds of evidence that explain a main idea.

5 What Are Supporting Details? In this cartoon, w hat is the speaker’s main idea? The main idea is that reading the morning paper is bad for the man’s health. CHAPTER 2 Supporting Details

6 What Are Supporting Details? The supporting reasons are that the political news raises his blood pressure, the business report makes him depressed, and the sports page makes him mad. CHAPTER 2 Supporting Details

7 In the paragraph above, the main idea is that women are underrepresented in U.S. politics. In the paragraph above, the main idea is that women are underrepresented in U.S. politics Eight million more women than men are of voting age, and more women than men vote in U.S. national elections. However, men greatly outnumber women in political office. Since 1789, over 1,800 men have served in the U.S. Senate, but only 13 women have served. Women are underrepresented in U.S. politics for a number of reasons. First, women are still underrepresented in law and business, the careers from which most politicians emerge. In addition, most women find that the irregular hours kept by those who run for office are incompatible with their role as mother. Fathers, in contrast, whose ordinary roles are more likely to take them away from home, are less likely to feel this conflict. Last, preferring to hold on to their positions of power, men have been reluctant to incorporate women into centers of decision-making or to present them as viable candidates. What Are Supporting Details? Read the paragraph and try to identify the three major details that support this main idea. Supporting Reasons CHAPTER 2 Supporting Details

8 What Are Supporting Details? Eight million more women than men are of voting age, and more women than men vote in U.S. national elections. However, men greatly outnumber women in political office. Since 1789, over 1,800 men have served in the U.S. Senate, but only 13 women have served. Women are underrepresented in U.S. politics for a number of reasons. First, women are still underrepresented in law and business, the careers from which most politicians emerge. In addition, most women find that the irregular hours kept by those who run for office are incompatible with their role as mother. Fathers, in contrast, whose ordinary roles are more likely to take them away from home, are less likely to feel this conflict. Last, preferring to hold on to their positions of power, men have been reluctant to incorporate women into centers of decision-making or to present them as viable candidates. / Supporting Reasons Main idea: Women are underrepresented in U.S. politics. What is the first major detail? Supporting detail 2: A politician’s hours are incompatible with the role of a mother. Supporting detail 3: Men have been reluctant to give women power. What is the second major detail? What is the third major detail? Supporting detail 1: Women are still underrepresented in law and business, the usual starting place for politicians. CHAPTER 2 Supporting Details

9 What Are Supporting Details? Eight million more women than men are of voting age, and more women than men vote in U.S. national elections. However, men greatly outnumber women in political office. Since 1789, over 1,800 men have served in the U.S. Senate, but only 13 women have served. Women are underrepresented in U.S. politics for a number of reasons. First, women are still underrepresented in law and business, the careers from which most politicians emerge. In addition, most women find that the irregular hours kept by those who run for office are incompatible with their role as mother. Fathers, in contrast, whose ordinary roles are more likely to take them away from home, are less likely to feel this conflict. Last, preferring to hold on to their positions of power, men have been reluctant to incorporate women into centers of decision-making or to present them as viable candidates. / Supporting Reasons In this paragraph, the three supporting details are reasons women are underrepresented in U.S. politics CHAPTER 2 Supporting Details

10 In the paragraph above, the main idea is supported by facts, not reasons. What Are Supporting Details? Supporting Facts Several factors contribute to our pickiness about eating certain foods. One factor which influences what foods we find tasty is how old we are. In young people, taste buds die and are replaced about every seven days. As we age, the buds are replaced more slowly, so taste declines. Thus children, who have abundant taste buds, often dislike foods with strong or unusual tastes, but as they grow older and lose taste buds, they may come to like these foods. Pickiness is also related to our upbringing. Many food and taste preferences result from childhood experiences and cultural influences. For example, Chinese children eat chicken feet as part of their normal diet, whereas American children consider such food “yucky.” A third factor relating to pickiness over food is our built-in sense of taste, which enables us to discriminate between foods that are safe to eat and foods that are poisonous. Because most plants that taste bitter contain toxic chemicals, we are more likely to survive if we avoid bitter-tasting plants. We have a preference, then, for sweet foods because they are generally nonpoisonous. Read the paragraph and try to identify the separate factors that contribute to our pickiness about eating certain foods (the main idea). CHAPTER 2 Supporting Details

11 What Are Supporting Details? / Supporting Facts Several factors contribute to our pickiness about eating certain foods. One factor which influences what foods we find tasty is how old we are. In young people, taste buds die and are replaced about every seven days. As we age, the buds are replaced more slowly, so taste declines. Thus children, who have abundant taste buds, often dislike foods with strong or unusual tastes, but as they grow older and lose taste buds, they may come to like these foods. Pickiness is also related to our upbringing. Many food and taste preferences result from childhood experiences and cultural influences. For example, Chinese children eat chicken feet as part of their normal diet, whereas American children consider such food “yucky.” A third factor relating to pickiness over food is our built-in sense of taste, which enables us to discriminate between foods that are safe to eat and foods that are poisonous. Because most plants that taste bitter contain toxic chemicals, we are more likely to survive if we avoid bitter-tasting plants. We have a preference, then, for sweet foods because they are generally nonpoisonous. There are three supporting facts for why we are picky about eating certain foods: 1) our age and how it affects our taste buds; 2) our upbringing; 3) our built-in sense of taste CHAPTER 2 Supporting Details

12 Several factors contribute to our pickiness about eating certain foods. One factor which influences what foods we find tasty is how old we are. In young people, taste buds die and are replaced about every seven days. As we age, the buds are replaced more slowly, so taste declines. Thus children, who have abundant taste buds, often dislike foods with strong or unusual tastes, but as they grow older and lose taste buds, they may come to like these foods. Pickiness is also related to our upbringing. Many food and taste preferences result from childhood experiences and cultural influences. For example, Chinese children eat chicken feet as part of their normal diet, whereas American children consider such food “yucky.” A third factor relating to pickiness over food is our built-in sense of taste, which enables us to discriminate between foods that are safe to eat and foods that are poisonous. Because most plants that taste bitter contain toxic chemicals, we are more likely to survive if we avoid bitter-tasting plants. We have a preference, then, for sweet foods because they are generally nonpoisonous What Are Supporting Details? / Supporting Facts The supporting details (the facts) give the added information we need to fully understand the main idea. CHAPTER 2 Supporting Details

13 In this paragraph, the main idea is supported by an extended example. An old Chinese story illustrates the emotional healing power of touch. A woman went to a traditional herbal healer, asking for a potion to kill her cruel mother-in-law. The herbalist gave her some tea, telling her to make some for her mother-in-law every day for three months. In addition, he told her to massage the older woman every day, claiming that the poison would enter the woman’s system more effectively that way. At the end of the three months, the mother-in- law would die, apparently of natural causes. The daughter-in-law did as she was told. But at the end of two and a half months, she had come to know and understand her mother-in-law through giving her massage. In turn, her mother- in-law had started to love her. The young woman ran back to the wise old doctor to ask for an antidote to the poison. He told her the tea was not poison at all, only flower water. What Are Supporting Details? Supporting Example(s) Read the paragraph and identify which sentence contains the main idea. Then identify which sentence starts the extended example. In this paragraph, the main idea is supported by an extended example. CHAPTER 2 Supporting Details

14 An old Chinese story illustrates the emotional healing power of touch. A woman went to a traditional herbal healer, asking for a potion to kill her cruel mother-in-law. The herbalist gave her some tea, telling her to make some for her mother-in-law every day for three months. In addition, he told her to massage the older woman every day, claiming that the poison would enter the woman’s system more effectively that way. At the end of the three months, the mother-in- law would die, apparently of natural causes. The daughter-in-law did as she was told. But at the end of two and a half months, she had come to know and understand her mother-in-law through giving her massage. In turn, her mother- in-law had started to love her. The young woman ran back to the wise old doctor to ask for an antidote to the poison. He told her the tea was not poison at all, only flower water. What Are Supporting Details? / Supporting Example(s) The first sentence presents the main idea. The extended example starts in the second sentence and continues to the end of the paragraph. CHAPTER 2 Supporting Details

15 Outlining Preparing an outline of a passage often helps you understand and see clearly the relationship between a main idea and its supporting details. CHAPTER 2 Supporting Details

16 Outlining Outlines start with a main idea (or a heading that summarizes the main idea) followed by supporting details. There are often two levels of supporting details—major and minor. The major details explain and develop the main idea. In turn, the minor details help fill out and make clear the major details. CHAPTER 2 Supporting Details

17 Outlining Here is the paragraph on gossip that you saw in Chapter 1. Reread the paragraph and pick out the three major supporting details. Social psychologists have found that almost everyone gossips. Male or female, young or old, blue-collar or professional, humans love to talk about one another. All too often, such gossip is viewed as a frivolous waste of time. However, it actually serves several important functions in the human community. For one thing, gossip is a form of networking. Talking with our friends and coworkers about each other is our most effective means of keeping track of the ever-changing social dynamic. It tells us who is in, who is out, and who can help us climb the social or professional ladder. A second function of gossip is the building of influence. When we engage in gossip, we are able to shape people’s opinions of ourselves. We tell stories that show ourselves in a good light—wise, compassionate, insightful, clever. A final and very powerful function of gossip is the creating of social alliances. There are few quicker ways to form a bond with another person than to share private information with him or her. To talk about a third party, especially in a critical way, creates a bond with our listener and gives a feeling of shared superiority. CHAPTER 2 Supporting Details

18 Outlining Social psychologists have found that almost everyone gossips. Male or female, young or old, blue-collar or professional, humans love to talk about one another. All too often, such gossip is viewed as a frivolous waste of time. However, it actually serves several important functions in the human community. For one thing, gossip is a form of networking. Talking with our friends and coworkers about each other is our most effective means of keeping track of the ever-changing social dynamic. It tells us who is in, who is out, and who can help us climb the social or professional ladder. A second function of gossip is the building of influence. When we engage in gossip, we are able to shape people’s opinions of ourselves. We tell stories that show ourselves in a good light—wise, compassionate, insightful, clever. A final and very powerful function of gossip is the creating of social alliances. There are few quicker ways to form a bond with another person than to share private information with him or her. To talk about a third party, especially in a critical way, creates a bond with our listener and gives a feeling of shared superiority CHAPTER 2 Supporting Details

19 Outlining Social psychologists have found that almost everyone gossips. Male or female, young or old, blue-collar or professional, humans love to talk about one another. All too often, such gossip is viewed as a frivolous waste of time. However, it actually serves several important functions in the human community. For one thing, gossip is a form of networking. Talking with our friends and coworkers about each other is our most effective means of keeping track of the ever-changing social dynamic. It tells us who is in, who is out, and who can help us climb the social or professional ladder. A second function of gossip is the building of influence. When we engage in gossip, we are able to shape people’s opinions of ourselves. We tell stories that show ourselves in a good light—wise, compassionate, insightful, clever. A final and very powerful function of gossip is the creating of social alliances. There are few quicker ways to form a bond with another person than to share private information with him or her. To talk about a third party, especially in a critical way, creates a bond with our listener and gives a feeling of shared superiority. 2 3 To outline this paragraph, these are the items you would include as the main idea and the major supporting details. 1 CHAPTER 2 Supporting Details

20 Outlining Social psychologists have found that almost everyone gossips. Male or female, young or old, blue-collar or professional, humans love to talk about one another. All too often, such gossip is viewed as a frivolous waste of time. However, it actually serves several important functions in the human community. For one thing, gossip is a form of networking. Talking with our friends and coworkers about each other is our most effective means of keeping track of the ever-changing social dynamic. It tells us who is in, who is out, and who can help us climb the social or professional ladder. A second function of gossip is the building of influence. When we engage in gossip, we are able to shape people’s opinions of ourselves. We tell stories that show ourselves in a good light—wise, compassionate, insightful, clever. A final and very powerful function of gossip is the creating of social alliances. There are few quicker ways to form a bond with another person than to share private information with him or her. To talk about a third party, especially in a critical way, creates a bond with our listener and gives a feeling of shared superiority. 2 3 Main idea: Gossip serves several important functions in the human community Major detail: 1. Form of networking Major detail: 2. Building of influence 3. Creating of social alliances 1 CHAPTER 2 Supporting Details

21 Outlining Social psychologists have found that almost everyone gossips. Male or female, young or old, blue-collar or professional, humans love to talk about one another. All too often, such gossip is viewed as a frivolous waste of time. However, it actually serves several important functions in the human community. For one thing, gossip is a form of networking. Talking with our friends and coworkers about each other is our most effective means of keeping track of the ever-changing social dynamic. It tells us who is in, who is out, and who can help us climb the social or professional ladder. A second function of gossip is the building of influence. When we engage in gossip, we are able to shape people’s opinions of ourselves. We tell stories that show ourselves in a good light—wise, compassionate, insightful, clever. A final and very powerful function of gossip is the creating of social alliances. There are few quicker ways to form a bond with another person than to share private information with him or her. To talk about a third party, especially in a critical way, creates a bond with our listener and gives a feeling of shared superiority. Now look at the minor details. These can be added to the outline. CHAPTER 2 Supporting Details

22 Outlining Social psychologists have found that almost everyone gossips. Male or female, young or old, blue-collar or professional, humans love to talk about one another. All too often, such gossip is viewed as a frivolous waste of time. However, it actually serves several important functions in the human community. For one thing, gossip is a form of networking. Talking with our friends and coworkers about each other is our most effective means of keeping track of the ever-changing social dynamic. It tells us who is in, who is out, and who can help us climb the social or professional ladder. A second function of gossip is the building of influence. When we engage in gossip, we are able to shape people’s opinions of ourselves. We tell stories that show ourselves in a good light—wise, compassionate, insightful, clever. A final and very powerful function of gossip is the creating of social alliances. There are few quicker ways to form a bond with another person than to share private information with him or her. To talk about a third party, especially in a critical way, creates a bond with our listener and gives a feeling of shared superiority. Main idea: Gossip serves several important functions in the human community Major detail: 1. Form of networking Major detail: 2. Building of influence 3. Creating of social alliances Minor detail: Networking is the best way to know who’s out, who’s in, and who can help us socially or professionally. Minor detail: By gossiping we can impress others as clever and compassionate, warm and likable. Sharing private information creates a bond with our listener and gives a feeling of shared superiority. CHAPTER 2 Supporting Details

23 Outlining Social psychologists have found that almost everyone gossips. Male or female, young or old, blue-collar or professional, humans love to talk about one another. All too often, such gossip is viewed as a frivolous waste of time. However, it actually serves several important functions in the human community. For one thing, gossip is a form of networking. Talking with our friends and coworkers about each other is our most effective means of keeping track of the ever-changing social dynamic. It tells us who is in, who is out, and who can help us climb the social or professional ladder. A second function of gossip is the building of influence. When we engage in gossip, we are able to shape people’s opinions of ourselves. We tell stories that show ourselves in a good light—wise, compassionate, insightful, clever. A final and very powerful function of gossip is the creating of social alliances. There are few quicker ways to form a bond with another person than to share private information with him or her. To talk about a third party, especially in a critical way, creates a bond with our listener and gives a feeling of shared superiority. Main idea: Gossip serves several important functions in the human community Major detail: 1. Form of networking Major detail: 2. Building of influence 3. Creating of social alliances Minor detail: Networking is the best way to know who’s out, who’s in, and who can help us socially or professionally. Minor detail: By gossiping we can impress others as clever and compassionate, warm and likable. Sharing private information creates a bond with our listener and gives a feeling of shared superiority. CHAPTER 2 Supporting Details

24 Outlining Main idea: Gossip serves several important functions in the human community Major detail: 1. Form of networking Major detail: 2. Building of influence 3. Creating of social alliances Minor detail: Networking is the best way to know who’s out, who’s in, and who can help us socially or professionally. Minor detail: By gossiping we can impress others as clever and compassionate, warm and likable. Sharing private information creates a bond with our listener and gives a feeling of shared superiority. Notice that the outline of a passage helps you understand and see clearly the relationship between a main idea and its supporting details. CHAPTER 2 Supporting Details

25 Outlining Outlining Tips Here are some common list words that you saw in Chapter 1: However, it [gossip] actually serves several important functions in the human community. Women are underrepresented in U.S. politics for a number of reasons. Examples TIP TIP 1Look for words that tell you a list of details is coming. List Words / Outlining Tips CHAPTER 2 Supporting Details

26 Outlining TIP TIP 1Look for words that tell you a list of details is coming. List Words / Outlining Tips You will not always be given such helpful signals that a list of details will follow. However, you will want to note such words when they are present. They help you to understand quickly the basic organization of a passage. CHAPTER 2 Supporting Details

27 Outlining / Outlining Tips Such words are called addition words. Here are some common addition words: TIP TIP 2Look for words that signal major details. Addition Words CHAPTER 2 Supporting Details

28 Outlining / Outlining Tips TIP TIP 2Look for words that signal major details. Eight million more women than men are of voting age, and more women than men vote in U.S. national elections. However, men greatly outnumber women in political office. Since 1789, over 1,800 men have served in the U.S. Senate, but only 13 women have served. Women are underrepresented in U.S. politics for a number of reasons. First, women are still underrepresented in law and business, the careers from which most politicians emerge. In addition, most women find that the irregular hours kept by those who run for office are incompatible with their role as mother. Fathers, in contrast, whose ordinary roles are more likely to take them away from home, are less likely to feel this conflict. Last, preferring to hold on to their positions of power, men have been reluctant to incorporate women into centers of decision-making or to present them as viable candidates. Look again at the selection on underrepresentation of women. Which word introduces the first major detail? First In addition Last Which words introduce the second major detail? Which word introduces the third major detail? Addition wordAddition words Addition word First In addition Last, CHAPTER 2 Supporting Details

29 Outlining TIP TIP 3When making an outline, put all supporting details of equal importance at the same distance from the margin. In the model outline below, the three major supporting details all begin at the same distance from the margin. Main idea 1. Major detail a. Minor detail b. Minor detail 2. Major detail a. Minor detail b. Minor detail 3. Major detail a. Minor detail b. Minor detail c. Minor detail / Outlining Tips CHAPTER 2 Supporting Details

30 Outlining TIP TIP 3When making an outline, put all supporting details of equal importance at the same distance from the margin. Main idea 1. Major detail a. Minor detail b. Minor detail 2. Major detail a. Minor detail b. Minor detail 3. Major detail a. Minor detail b. Minor detail c. Minor detail Likewise, the minor supporting details are all indented at the same distance from the margin. / Outlining Tips CHAPTER 2 Supporting Details

31 Mapping Maps, or diagrams, are highly visual outlines in which circles, boxes, or other shapes show the relationships between main ideas and supporting details. Each major detail is connected to the main idea, often presented in the form of a title. If minor details are included, each is connected to the major detail it explains. CHAPTER 2 Supporting Details

32 Gossip serves several important functions in the human community. Mapping Form of networking Creating of social alliances Gossiping is the best way to know who’s out, who’s in, and who can help us socially or professionally. Sharing private information creates a bond with our listener and gives a feeling of shared superiority. Building of influence By gossiping we can impress others as clever and compassionate. Social psychologists have found that almost everyone gossips. Male or female, young or old, blue-collar or professional, humans love to talk about one another. All too often, such gossip is viewed as a frivolous waste of time. However, it actually serves several important functions in the human community. For one thing, gossip is a form of networking. Talking with our friends and coworkers about each other is our most effective means of keeping track of the ever-changing social dynamic. It tells us who is in, who is out, and who can help us climb the social or professional ladder. A second function of gossip is the building of influence. When we engage in gossip, we are able to shape people’s opinions of ourselves. We tell stories that show ourselves in a good light—wise, compassionate, insightful, clever. A final and very powerful function of gossip is the creating of social alliances. There are few quicker ways to form a bond with another person than to share private information with him or her. To talk about a third party, especially in a critical way, creates a bond with our listener and gives a feeling of shared superiority. Here is how you might create a map of the paragraph on gossip. Main idea Major details Minor details CHAPTER 2 Supporting Details

33 Mapping Read this paragraph and decide what major details should be added to the map below. There were four major social classes in Rome. With the possible exception of very small, isolated, primitive groups, every human society has had some sort of class system. In ancient Rome, there were four major social classes. To begin with, at the top of the heap were the aristocrats, called “patricians.” This term derived from the word for father— pater—and is still sometimes used today; it also survives in the name Patricia. Second, as a practical matter if not in principle, were the soldiers, an enormously powerful group. One Roman emperor, on his deathbed, advised his son: “Enrich the soldiers; nothing else matters.” Next came the common people, called the plebeians. (This term too survives today: a freshman at a military academy is called a plebe.) The plebeians were artisans, shopkeepers, and laborers. Fourth, at the bottom, were slaves. They could work as domestic servants, manual laborers, and so on; but some slaves were educated and served as teachers. CHAPTER 2 Supporting Details

34 With the possible exception of very small, isolated, primitive groups, every human society has had some sort of class system. In ancient Rome, there were four major social classes. To begin with, at the top of the heap were the aristocrats, called “patricians.” This term derived from the word for father— pater—and is still sometimes used today; it also survives in the name Patricia. Second, as a practical matter if not in principle, were the soldiers, an enormously powerful group. One Roman emperor, on his deathbed, advised his son: “Enrich the soldiers; nothing else matters.” Next came the common people, called the plebeians. (This term too survives today: a freshman at a military academy is called a plebe.) The plebeians were artisans, shopkeepers, and laborers. Fourth, at the bottom, were slaves. They could work as domestic servants, manual laborers, and so on; but some slaves were educated and served as teachers. common people Mapping There were four major social classes in Rome. Common people (Plebeians) Aristocrats(Patricia ns) Slaves Soldiers CHAPTER 2 Supporting Details soldiers aristocrats slaves

35 Mapping There were four major social classes in Rome. With the possible exception of very small, isolated, primitive groups, every human society has had some sort of class system. In ancient Rome, there were four major social classes. To begin with, at the top of the heap were the aristocrats, called “patricians.” This term derived from the word for father— pater—and is still sometimes used today; it also survives in the name Patricia. Second, as a practical matter if not in principle, were the soldiers, an enormously powerful group. One Roman emperor, on his deathbed, advised his son: “Enrich the soldiers; nothing else matters.” Next came the common people, called the plebeians. (This term too survives today: a freshman at a military academy is called a plebe.) The plebeians were artisans, shopkeepers, and laborers. Fourth, at the bottom, were slaves. They could work as domestic servants, manual laborers, and so on; but some slaves were educated and served as teachers. Common people (Plebeians) Aristocrats(Patricia ns) Slaves Soldiers Notice that addition words introduce the major details. CHAPTER 2 Supporting Details

36 Summarizing A summary is the reduction of a large amount of information to its most important points. As a general guideline, a paragraph might be reduced to a sentence or two, an article might be reduced to a paragraph, and a textbook chapter might be reduced to about three pages of notes. CHAPTER 2 Supporting Details

37 Summarizing One of the most common types of summarizing occurs when you are taking study notes on textbook material. Very often you will find it helpful to summarize examples of key terms. CHAPTER 2 Supporting Details

38 Summarizing Habituation is the tendency to ignore environmental factors that remain constant. The brain seems “prewired” to pay more attention to changes in the environment than to stimuli that remain constant. Have you ever gotten a new clock and thought it had a very loud tick, but in a short time you realized you weren’t aware of its ticking at all? This happens because you become habituated to the regularity of the sound. If the sound changed every few minutes, you would notice every change because you would not have enough time to become habituated each time. High-end car security systems take advantage of this. When activated, the security system begins with a siren, which then changes to honking, then back to a siren, and so forth, so that it is impossible to habituate to the noise and ignore the alarm. These types of alarms are annoying, but effective. Read the textbook passage below. Now read this summary of the passage. Habituation—the tendency to ignore environmental factors that remain constant. For example, you will lose awareness of the ticking of a new clock. Summary Note that a textbook definition of a key term (such as habituation) should generally not be summarized, but should be worded in the language chosen by the author. CHAPTER 2 Supporting Details

39 Habituation—the tendency to ignore environmental factors that remain constant. For example, you will lose awareness of the ticking of a new clock. Summarizing Habituation is the tendency to ignore environmental factors that remain constant. The brain seems “prewired” to pay more attention to changes in the environment than to stimuli that remain constant. Have you ever gotten a new clock and thought it had a very loud tick, but in a short time you realized you weren’t aware of its ticking at all? This happens because you become habituated to the regularity of the sound. If the sound changed every few minutes, you would notice every change because you would not have enough time to become habituated each time. High-end car security systems take advantage of this. When activated, the security system begins with a siren, which then changes to honking, then back to a siren, and so forth, so that it is impossible to habituate to the noise and ignore the alarm. These types of alarms are annoying, but effective. Summary On the other hand, it usually makes sense to summarize the supporting information. 13 words 67 words CHAPTER 2 Supporting Details

40 Summarizing CHAPTER 2 Supporting Details Summarizing often involves two steps: 1 Select one example from several that might be given. 2 Condense the example if it’s not already very brief.

41 CHAPTER 2 Supporting Details


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