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The Answers

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Fry’s Delight Miss Fry was given a box containing a variety of chocolates. Although she likes chocolates, she is not greedy, so she decided to share her chocolates and make them last. Her method of consumption was to eat one on the first day, and give away 10% of the remainder, to eat 2 on the second day and give 10% of the remainder away, eat three on the third day and give away 10% of the remainder, and continue in this way until no chocolates were left. How many chocolates were in the box and how many days did they last?

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Fry’s Delight We begin with the assumption that she doesn’t eat or give away parts of chocolates. This means that the minimum she can give away is 1. 1 is 10% of 10, which means she would have 9 left to eat, which would make it the 9 th day. Working backwards gives:

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Fry’s Delight Day No at start EatLeaving Give Away End of Day 999000 81881019 727720218 636630327 545540436 454450545 363360654 272270763 181180872

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Bournville Dreams A chocolate factory makes two different types of chocolate: dark and light. Each day, it receives 1200L of milk and 1200kg of cocoa. A batch of dark chocolate requires 20L milk and 50kg of cocoa. A batch of light chocolate requires 40L of milk and 30kg cocoa. The management insists that the workers produce at least 25 batches in total each day and that only full batches can be produced. The company makes a profit of £15 on a batch of dark chocolate and £10 on a batch of light chocolate. Work out how many batches of each type need to be produced to maximise profits.

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Bournville Dreams A chocolate factory makes two different types of chocolate: dark and light. Each day, it receives 1200L of milk and 1200kg of cocoa. A batch of dark chocolate requires 20L milk and 50kg of cocoa. A batch of light chocolate requires 40L of milk and 30kg cocoa. The management insists that the workers produce at least 25 batches in total each day and that only full batches can be produced. The company makes a profit of £15 on a batch of dark chocolate and £10 on a batch of light chocolate. Work out how many batches of each type need to be produced to maximise profits. First we identify constraints. Cocoa 50d + 30l ≤ 1200 Milk 20d + 40l ≤ 1200 Min Batches d + l ≥ 25 d ≥ 0, l ≥ 0

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Bournville Dreams

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Maximise: profit = 15d + 10l The optimum solution will always be at a corner of the feasible region. These are: (0,30) = £300 (0,25) = £250 (22,3) = £360 (9,25) = £385 (8,26) = £380 (8,25) = £370 Milk = 9 × 20 + 25 × 40 = 1180L Cocoa = 9 × 50 + 25 × 30 = 1200kg

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Christmas Celebrations At Christmas, Ken likes to buy chocolates for family, friends and carol singers. He decides to spend £200 and has 100 people to buy for. He divides his spending between family-sized tins for £10, small selection packs for friends at £2, and fun-sized chocolate bars for carol singers at 20p each. Given that Ken has more friends than he anticipates carol singers, how many of each item should he buy?

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Christmas Celebrations T + S + B = 100 10T + 2S + 0.2B = 200 B must be a multiple of 5 and S > B 2T + 2S + 2B = 200 8T - 1.8B = 0 8T = 1.8B 40T = 9B

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Christmas Celebrations 40T = 9B B = 0, 40 or 80 S > B, so B ≠ 80 B = 0 => T = 0 => S = 100 B = 40 => T = 9 => S = 51 So 40 carol singers, 9 family and 51 friends.

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Box Clever The gift box for some Fairtrade hot chocolate powder is to be made from a single square sheet of card, with side length of 24cm, by cutting smaller squares (of integer side length) from the corners of the original square. It will then be folded up to make an open box (The lid is made separately). What is the maximum volume that can be obtained in this way? Show, using a graph, that this is the maximum volume.

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Box Clever cut outbasevolume 0240 122484 220800 318972 4161024 514980 612864 710700 88512 96324 104160 11244 1200

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Box Clever cut outbasevolume 0240 122484 220800 318972 4161024 514980 612864 710700 88512 96324 104160 11244 1200 Maximum volume of 1024cm³ when cut out is 4cm

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Six After Eight A small selection bag of posh Fairtrade chocolates contains 6 chocolates. These are a random selection from 8 different chocolates. A quality-control system is put in place to ensure that no selection contains more than 2 of the same chocolate or fewer than 4 different chocolates. How many different bags of chocolates are possible?

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Six After Eight There are 3 possible scenarios: 6 unique chocolates 1 pair and 4 other unique chocolates 2 pairs and 2 other unique chocolates

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Six After Eight 6 unique chocolates

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Six After Eight 1 pair and 4 other unique chocolates

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Six After Eight 2 pairs and 2 other unique chocolates

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Six After Eight 28 + 280 + 420 = 728

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Seg-sational! There are 20 segments in a chocolate orange. Modelling a chocolate orange as a sphere of diameter 5cm, with a cylindrical hollow of diameter 5mm running down the core, what is the volume of a segment? You may discount the small dome of chocolate at each of the ‘poles’ of the Chocolate Orange.

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Seg-sational! Volume of sphere of chocolate

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Seg-sational! Volume of hollow cylinder

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Seg-sational! Volume of segment

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Breaking the Mould Anna and Billy play a game with a rectangular chocolate bar that is 5 squares by 10 squares. Anna starts. They take turns breaking a piece of the bar (only one piece can be broken in one turn, always along the lines between the squares). The first player to break off a 1 by 1 square piece wins. Who wins the game?!

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Breaking the Mould AnnaBilly

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A Year’s Supply of Chocolate Assume that all of the Cadbury’s Dairy Milk bars bought in England were the standard length of 11.4cm. When laid end-to-end, they would form a line around the Earth along the line of latitude passing through Liverpool (53½°N). Using the Earth’s circumference at 40,075km at the equator, how many bars are sold in England each year?

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A Year’s Supply of Chocolate Radius of Earth = 40075 ÷ 2π = 6378.134km Radius at Liverpool 6378.134 × cos (53.5) = 3793.860km Circumference at Liverpool = 3793.860 × 2π = 23837.523km

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A Year’s Supply of Chocolate Circumference at Liverpool = 3793.860 × 2π = 23837.523km = 2383752317.9cm Number of bars = 2383752317.9 ÷ 11.4 = 209101080.5118 ≈ 209,101,081 bars

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