Guessing the words A French student goes to London for his holiday. He knows a little English, but he can ’ t speak it very well. One day he goes to a restaurant. He wants to have some eggs, but he can ’ t remember the English word for “ egg ”. A French student goes to London for his holiday. He knows a little English, but he can ’ t speak it very well. One day he goes to a restaurant. He wants to have some eggs, but he can ’ t remember the English word for “ egg ”. He looks around and sees a picture of a hen. He shows the picture to the waiter. “ What do you call her children?” he asks. “Chicks, sir.” “ And what do you call chicks before they’re born?” “ Eggs, sir.” “Very well,” says the French student. “ Give me two eggs and a cup of tea, please”. He looks around and sees a picture of a hen. He shows the picture to the waiter. “ What do you call her children?” he asks. “Chicks, sir.” “ And what do you call chicks before they’re born?” “ Eggs, sir.” “Very well,” says the French student. “ Give me two eggs and a cup of tea, please”. Discussion: What would you do if you were him at that time?
Guessing the words Is he clever? Yes, because he is clever enough to use the relations between words to make himself understood at last.
Guessing the words How do you deal with the new words or phrases that you meet while reading? Ignore them and continue reading Look them up in the dictionary Guess the meaning
…Yet, shopkeepers may have to spend extra hours to deal with problems, such as shoplifters, who always take away things from the shop without paying for them. … What does the word “shoplifter” mean? A.A thief B. A guide in a shop C. the owner of a shop D. A porter ( 搬运工 ) Example 1 (description 描述 )
The new tax law supersedes, or replaces, the law that was in effect last year. A. supervise B. review C. take the place of D. start to enforce Example 2 replaces synonym （同义词）
Guessing The Words 3. Those new comers were not used to the life in the suburbs which was so different from that inside the city. A.town B. capital C. country D. house Example 3 ( from NMET) the city Antonym （反义词）
Guessing the words ① Use synonym （同义词） Context Clues ② Use Antonym （反义词） Context Clues ③ Use definition/ example/description clues ( 定义或解释说明 ) ④ Use common sense/related information clues ( 常识、生活经验 ) ⑤ Use grammar and punctuation （标点） clues To guess the words correctly we can use the context ( 上下文，语境 ) clues:
1. Please do the Exercises in class -- Guess the meaning of the underlined words: on your papers (P1-2) in 10 minutes. 2. Then check your answers with your group members if you have finished. 3. Share with each other why you choose the answers if you have different opinions.
Guessing The Words Using synonym( 同义词 )Context Clues 1. The football player was penalized for his rudeness and the punishment was a good lesson for him. A. called B. praised C. paid D. punished
Guessing The Words 2. He replied quickly, but after he considered the problem more carefully, he regretted having made such a hasty decision. A. careful B. hard C. good D. quick Using synonym( 同义词 )Context Clues
Using Antonym( 反义词 ) Context Clues 1.He had been getting better but during the night his condition deteriorated. A. became better B. got worse C. stayed the same D. did not change With the help of words like: unlike, but however, while, instead, on the contrary, in contrast, on the other hand...etc. but
(2007 广东 ) 2. In the first case, where we don't tell the clerk, a couple of things would happen. …. In contrast, bringing the error to the clerk's attention causes different things to happen ….. 48. The phrase "bringing the error to the clerk's attention" (in para. 5) means___. A. telling the truth to the clerk B. offering advice to the clerk C. asking the clerk to be more attentive D. reminding the clerk of the charged item Using Antonym( 反义词 ) Context Clues charged
Using Definition( 定义 ) 1.Mark Twain was not the author’s real name; it was a pseudonym. A. a pen name B. a true name C. his family name
Using description ( 描述 ) Before long, many dinners stayed open around the clock. In other words, people were able to eat in a dinner at any time. A. the meals that people have everyday B. the food that people eat in their meals C. the places where people can have dinner/eat D. the people who serve in a restaurant
1. He is a resolute man. Once he makes up his mind to do something, he won’t give it up halfway. A. strange B. firm C. kind D. clever Using common sense/related Information ( 常识、生活经验）
2. When a doctor performs an operation on a patient, he usually gives an anaesthetic to make him unconscious, because he does not want his patient to feel pain or to know what is happening to him. A. A kind of books B. A piece of advice C. A kind of medicine D. A kind of animals
Using causes and effects relations ( 因果关系 ) With the help of conjunctions like: because, as ， since ， for ， so ， thus ， as a result ， instead ， therefore. etc.
“But,” said Kim, “ I feel that since you are my superior( 领导, 上司 ), it would be presumptuous of me to tell you what to do.” A.Full of respect B. too confident and rude C. Lacking in experience D. too shy and quiet Using causes and effects relations since
1. Most women in Ghana ---the educated and illiterate, the urban and rural, the young and old--- work to earn an income in addition to maintaining their roles as housewives and mothers. A. well-educated B. poorly-educated C. taught D. poor Use grammar and punctuation clues
2. You can take any of the periodicals: The World of English, Foreign Language Teaching in Schools, or English Learning. A. dictionaries B. story-books C. magazines D. newspapers Use grammar and punctuation( 标点） clues
Guessing The Words ① Use synonym （同义词） Context Clues ② Use Antonym （反义词） Context Clues ③ Use definition/ example/description clues ( 定义或解释说明 ) ④ Use common sense/related information clues ( 常识、生活经验 ) ⑤ Use grammar and punctuation （标点） clues How to guess the words correctly by using the context clues: All
1. … Indeed, any serious student of antique should spend as much time as possible visiting palaces, stately homes and museums to see some of the finest examples of clocks from the past. The underlined phrase stately homes means: A. state-owned houses B. houses in very good condition C. grand houses open to the public D. houses where statesmen meet regularly
2. The plant is often pruned so that it remains only 60-90 centimeters high. Pruning is important because it encourages the growth of tender shoots, or young leaves. It is from these shoots that the best tea is got. A.Regular cutting of the plants B.Frequent watering C.Regular use of chemicals D.Growing the plants high in the mountain Examples from NMET
3. “ The safety issue is a big one, ” says Joe Mahoney, who quickly discovered he was not alone in his worries. On campus tours other parents voiced similar concerns, and the same question was always asked: what about crime? But when college officials always gave the same answer “ That ’ s not a problem here. ” Mahoney began to feel uneasy. “ No crime whatsoever? ” comments Mahoney today. “ I just don ’ t buy it. ” Nor should he: in 1999 the U.S. department of education had reports of nearly 400,000 serious crimes on or around our campus. The underlined word “ buy ” means: A. Mind B. admit C. believe D. expect Examples from NMET
Homework Go over the ideas we talk about today.