Understanding Number Discriminate –based on number and nothing else Categorize –generalize across situations –label Conceptualize –serial learning (1,

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Understanding Number Discriminate –based on number and nothing else Categorize –generalize across situations –label Conceptualize –serial learning (1, 2, 3, 4…) transitive inference Scanning in pigeons vs. chimps –operations (2 + 1 =3)

Early Counting Experiments Clever Hans –answers math questions

Clever Hans

Early Counting Experiments Clever Hans –answers math questions Spontaneous Counting –not impressive

Early Counting Experiments Clever Hans –answers math questions Spontaneous Counting - not impressive Mechner (1958) –press lever “X’ times –pigeons can tell the difference between 45 and 50 pecks –time passed and not number? Other examples of responding based on counts which seem to generalize

Generalize Across Modalities

Discriminate Number (not Time) Acquisition –RRRN –NRRRN R = Reward N = Nonreward

Categorize (Generalize) Acquisition –CPPN –PPN Shift –PCCN –CCN P = Pellets N = Nonreward C = Corn Pops

Categorize (Label) Answers Correctly: “How many blocks?”

Not Subitization Perceptual not cognitive Estimating small quantities at a glance without counting Hard with similar distractors

How Many? SquaresOvals

Conceptualize (Serial Learning) Transitive inference Simultaneous chaining

Three-Item Transitive Inference Train  A > B  B > C Test  A > C But…………..A is 100% reinforced and C is 0%

Five-Item Transitive Inference Train  A > B  B > C  C > D  D > E Test  B > D But…………the are alternatives!

Successful “Species”  Children  Monkeys  Pigeons  Fish  “Inebriated” University Students

Why? Fewer unreinforced responses directed at B because its partner A is always reinforced (Disappointment Hypothesis) B reminds you of A and C, D reminds you of C and E. A and C have much more strength than D and E (Value Transfer Hypothesis). So, transitive inference does not imply the learning of a mental sequence

Simultaneous Chaining Ordered Series of Responses A-B-C-D-E  Response Chain: Each response serves as a discriminative stimulus  Serial Representation: Mental chunking

Serial Order Learning Simultaneous Chaining Task –All stimuli appear simultaneously in random locations –Press numbers or objects in a specified order –Stimuli disappear when pressed and trial finishes with reinforcement –Trial immediately ends if a mistake is made Tests Trials With Missing Items –Mental Line? –S-R sequence?

Pigeons (Test Trials)

Chimpanzees (Test Trials)

(Brannon & Terrace, 1998) Basic paradigm: Touching stimuli in numerical order produces a reward.

Primates Rosencrantz and Macduff

Test with novel stimuli About 75% correct

Number Operations

Sheba Taught to look in three different locations and choose a number for the total, 0+2+1=3 Maybe just counting not adding? Numbers always added to less or equal to 4

But can’t do 2+2.

Nonverbal Counting Models

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