Sound Reduplication Sound reduplication is a minor type of word-formation. Definition Classification Use of The Reduplicatives
Definition Sound reduplication is the formation of compound words by repeating the same element with little or no change. Words made in this way are known as reduplicatives.
Classification As far as the form is concerned, there are words 1.with no change: hubba hubba, goody-goody 2.with different initial letters: hoity-toity, willy-nilly, walkie-talkie 3.with different vowels:fiddle-faddle, shilly-shally, wishy-washy 4.with both different consonants and vowels, such as spic-and span, snick-and-snee
Classification semantically, these words fall in 4 groups : 1 words to imitate sounds, e.g. tick-tuck, ha ha ha, bow-wow, quack-quack 2 words to suggest alternating movement, e.g. ping-pong, seesaw, zigzag, flip-flop 3 words to disparage by suggesting that something is in disorder, or of small value, or of inferior quality, as in fiddle-faddle, hurry-skurry and topsy-turvy 4 words to express one’s contempt of the character, appearance and behaviour of a person, as in clever-clever and hocus-pocus 5 words to intensify, e.g. teeny-weeny, tip-top, super-duper
Use of Reduplicatives Reduplicatives should be used with care. Used on appropriate occasion, they can be very effective. Below for instance, is an example of the effective use of reduplcatives: Our time is running out and we must hurry- skurry with this fiddle-faddle, because willy- nilly this feature must end even if it is topsy- turvy. tips: fiddle-faddle (trifling matters) hurry-skurry (proceed in disorderly haste) willy-nilly(willingly or unwillingly) topsy-turvy (upside down)
Commonization of Proper Names Another minor type of word-formation is the coinage of common words from proper names. They come from all sources, from names of scientists, politicians to characters in literature; from TVs, movies and books to trademarks. generally speaking, proper names can be divided into four groups : 1 names of people 1) words of this group are from names of scientists, inventors, etc. 2) some words are from charaters in mythology 3) some are from historical figures 4)others are from characters in literary works 2 names of places 3 names of books 4 tradenames
New words John Hancock (historical figure) Pasteurize (scientist) curie (scientist) Nicotine (politician)
NEW WORD Godfather (book) Watergate (place) Mr. Clean (trademark) Walter Mitty (character)