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History of Psychology Chapter 9 Behaviorism: Antecedent Influences.

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Presentation on theme: "History of Psychology Chapter 9 Behaviorism: Antecedent Influences."— Presentation transcript:

1 History of Psychology Chapter 9 Behaviorism: Antecedent Influences

2 The Influence of Animal Psychology on Behaviorism A. Background 1. product of evolutionary theory 2. Influenced later behaviorism 3. influence of Romanes and Morgan

3 The Influence of Animal Psychology on Behaviorism B. A note on Jacques Loeb ( ) 1. significant step toward objectivity in animal psychology 2. tropism as basis for theory of animal behavior: consciousness not necessary Tropism: an involuntary forced movement

4 The Influence of Animal Psychology on Behaviorism B. A note on Jacques Loeb ( ) 3. Argued that animal consciousness was revealed by associative memory Associative memory: the animals had learned to react to certain stimuli in a desirable way. e.g.,Name and food 4. taught Watson at Chicago

5 The Influence of Animal Psychology on Behaviorism C. Rats, ants, and the animal mind 1. Robert Yerkes His research strengthened comparative psychology 2. Willard Small introduced the rat maze (a standard method for the study of learning) rat maze

6 The Influence of Animal Psychology on Behaviorism C. Rats, ants, and the animal mind 3. Watson a dissertation: “Animal Education: The Psychical Development of the White Rat" b. 1907: discussed conscious experience of sensation in rats

7 The Influence of Animal Psychology on Behaviorism C. Rats, ants, and the animal mind 4. Turner 1906 paper on ant behavior 5. Washburn: The Animal Mind (1908) a. The first comparative psychology textbook in the US

8 The Influence of Animal Psychology on Behaviorism C. Rats, ants, and the animal mind : Pavlov introduced his work on animal psychology to U.S : only 9 animal psychologists

9 The Influence of Animal Psychology on Behaviorism C. Rats, ants, and the animal mind 8. Animal psychology: not practical, no funding, and no employment : Journal of Animal Behavior (later the Journal of Comparative Psychology)

10 The Influence of Animal Psychology on Behaviorism D. Clever Hans, the clever horse 1. Wilhelm von Osten a. goal: prove humans and animals have similar mental processes b. animals simply lack education Clever Hans

11 The Influence of Animal Psychology on Behaviorism D. Clever Hans, the clever horse 2. government investigation headed by Stumpf 3. Stumpf’s student: Pfungst a. experimental approach b. discovered Hans’s partial reinforcement schedule 4. demonstrated value of experimental approach to animal behavior

12 Edward Thorndike ( ) A. Thorndike’s life 1. read James’s Principles, later studied with James 2. planned research with children but prohibited 3. inspired by Morgan, used chicks Edward Lee Thorndike

13 Edward Thorndike ( ) : Ph.D. from Columbia with Cattell a. used cats and dogs b. "Animal Intelligence: An Experimental Study of the Associative Processes in Animals." (first dissertation to use animal subjects)

14 Edward Thorndike ( ) 5. research with other species (fish, cats, and monkeys); uninterested in animal research 6. research at Columbia for 50 years a. joined faculty in 1899 b. problems in human learning c. foci: educational psychology and mental testing

15 Edward Thorndike ( ) , Founded the Journal of Educational Psychology , APA president 9. Very productive. 507 items in his bibliography

16 Edward Thorndike ( ) B. Connectionism 1. Thorndike’s approach to learning; learning as connections between stimuli and responses 2. direct application of philosophical associationism

17 Edward Thorndike ( ) B. Connectionism 3. Influenced by Romanes and Morgan: mentalistic concepts 4. did not think high levels of consciousness or intelligence on animals as Romanes did

18 Edward Thorndike ( ) B. Connectionism 5. after Thorndike a. decreasing the importance of consciousness in animal psychology b. increasing use of experimental method to study behavior 6. mechanism: behavior must be reduced to study S-R elements

19 Edward Thorndike ( ) C. The puzzle box 1. quantitative measures of learning (e.g., # of errors) 2. trial and error learning (Thorndike called it "trial and accidental success" learning) Food Cat

20 Edward Thorndike ( ) D. Laws of learning 1. law of effect Act that produce satisfaction in a given situation become associated with that situation; when the situation recurs, the act is likely to recur 2. law of exercise or law of use and disuse The more an act or response is used in a given situation, the more strongly the act become associated with that situation 3. Thorndike’s research: reward more effective than mere repetition

21 Edward Thorndike ( ) E. Comment 1. beginning the learning theory 2. The objective spirit influenced behaviorism

22 Ivan Pavlov ( ) A. Pavlov’s life 1. Born in Russia 2. intended to study for the priesthood 3. read about Darwin, chose animal physiology Ivan Pavlov

23 Ivan Pavlov ( ) 4. total dedication to research : professor of pharmacology at St. Petersburg, Russia 6. allowed women and Jewish students to work in his laboratory Nobel Prize for work on digestion

24 Ivan Pavlov ( ) B. Conditioned reflexes 1. Three research areas a. function of the nerves of the heart b. primary on digestion c. conditioned reflexes

25 Ivan Pavlov ( ) 2. Psychic reflexes a. Zeitgeist: focus on mentalistic experiences of laboratory animals b. interpreting the animals’ mental events in subjective and human terms c.later, Pavlov proposed objectivism

26 Ivan Pavlov ( ) B. Conditioned Reflexes 3. innate/unconditioned reflex and conditional reflex Food (UC)----  Salivation (UR) Ring (CS) ----  Salivation (CS)

27 Ivan Pavlov ( ) 4. reinforcement necessary for learning 5. Later, extended to extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalization, discrimination, higher-order conditioning 6. most extensive research program since Wundt’s

28 Ivan Pavlov ( ) C. Comment on Pavlov 1. He demonstrated that higher mental processes in animals could be described in physiological terms without consciousness 2. His conditioning methods  broad practical application

29 Ivan Pavlov ( ) C. Comment on Pavlov 3. continued the tradition of mechanism. All animals (include human being) were complicated machines 4. provided psychology with a basic element of behavior

30 Ivan Pavlov ( ) C. Comment on Pavlov 5. behavior could be reduced to elements and studied in experimental laboratory 6. agreed with James that psychology still not a science a. excluded psychology from his work b. much later self-identified as an experimental psychologist

31 The Influence of Functional Psychology on Behaviorism Functional Psychology 1. more objective than previous schools 2. U.S. favored the idea of objective psychology 3. Defined psychology as the science of behavior 4. Called for focus on behavior instead of consciousness


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