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Chapter 1 Introduction Historical background Five schools of behaviorism.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1 Introduction Historical background Five schools of behaviorism."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 1 Introduction Historical background Five schools of behaviorism

2 Defining Learning a relatively permanent change in knowledge or behavior that results from experience. (behavior: any activity that can be either directly or indirectly observed)

3 Two Basic Types of Learning Classical conditioning Process by which an inborn, involuntary behavior is produced in new situations

4 Two Basic Types of Learning Operant conditioning Strengthening or weakening of a voluntary behavior because of its consequences Behavior (dog sits) Scolding Praise Nothing Behavior Increases or decreases Food Reinforcers

5 Skinner Box (Conditioning Box)

6 Sniffy the Virtual Rat

7 Historical Background Aristotle ( BC) Law of similarity Law of contrast Law of contiguity Law of frequency

8 Historical Background Descartes Mind-body dualism British empiricists Tabula rasa

9 Historical Background Structuralism Introspection Functionalism

10 von Osten’s goal: prove humans and animals have similar mental processes Clever Hans, the clever horse

11 Used experimental approach 2 groups of questioners Group 1 knew the answers Group 2 did not know the answers Hans only answered correctly when questioners knew the answers Clever Hans, the clever horse An Investigation

12 Conclusion: Hans was receiving some type of information from questioners Hans had been unintentionally conditioned by his owner Impact: Scientists more skeptical of mental processes in animals But… Provided proof that animals were capable of learning Clever Hans, the clever horse An Investigation

13 Historical Background Behaviorism Watson 1913: Watson declared war Dealt solely with observable behavior Rejected mentalistic concepts Goal: prediction and control of behavior 1924: Watsonian behaviorism preeminent in US Law of parsimony

14 Watson’s Life ( ) 1920: Scandal Affair with student Rosalie Rayner Watson forced to resign Moved into advertising

15 Five schools of behaviorism Watsonian behaviorism Neobehaviorism: Hull Intervening variables Cognitive Neobehaviorism: Tolman Cognitive map Latent learning Social Learning Theory: Bandura Reciprocal determinism Radical Behaviorism: Skinner


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