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None of Henry VIII’s children had children, so who will rule next? Henry had a sister! She had a daughter, she had a son who became King! Find out the.

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Presentation on theme: "None of Henry VIII’s children had children, so who will rule next? Henry had a sister! She had a daughter, she had a son who became King! Find out the."— Presentation transcript:

1 None of Henry VIII’s children had children, so who will rule next? Henry had a sister! She had a daughter, she had a son who became King! Find out the names of all the people in bold and draw the Family Tree!

2 Welcome to the Stuarts!

3 None of Henry VIII’s children had any children! So who will rule? Henry VIII had a sister Who had a daughter Who had a son Who became King Simple really Find out the names of all these people and fill in the family tree

4 From Tudors to Stuarts Henry VIII Sister Child 1 Child 2 Child 3 Daughter Son Stuart Son Stuart Tudor Complete the family tree. Son Stuart Husband Stuart

5 From Tudors to Stuarts Henry VIII Margaret Tudor Mary Elizabeth Edward Mary Queen of Scots James VI Scot Stuart Charles II Charles I Stuart Tudor Complete the family tree. James V Scot Stuart James IV Scot Stuart

6 From Tudors to Stuarts The Stuart Reign: timeline Mark the following events on your timeline: Each time a monarch changes (there are 3 !) Plague Fire of London Gunpowder plot Start of Civil War End of Civil War England was a republic (no King or Queen!)

7 From Tudors to Stuarts The Stuart Reign: timeline James I Charles I Charles II Gunpowder Plot 1605 Civil War began 1642 Civil War ends 1649 England was a Republic Fire of London 1666 Plague

8 Bonfire Night Write down three things you know about Bonfire Night in the back of your books

9 Title: Was Guy Fawkes Framed? Date: _________________ Learning Objectives: To investigate the story of guy Fawkes To categorise the evidence To come to a conclusion as to Fawkes’s guilt Success criteria: To complete a reasoned argument

10 Was Guy Fawkes Framed? What can I learn from this source? What do I know already that helps explain this source? What else do I need to know to explain this source? What other questions do I want to ask? Two examples of Guy Fawkes’ signature whilst he was in the Tower of London. One was written just after his arrest and the other was scribbled a few days later

11 Was Guy Fawkes framed? In pairs complete this: Look through all of the EVIDENCE. You need to sort it out into Evidence we have found that Guy Fawkes was framed is.. We think the most important piece of evidence is Because Evidence we have found that Guy Fawkes was not framed is.. We think the most important piece of evidence is Because

12 The soldiers were sent by Robert Cecil. He seemed to know who the plotters were and where they were hiding long before Guy Fawkes confessed their names The only place to get gunpowder in such large quantities was the Tower of London. Only someone in a powerful position in Government could have obtained permission to take so much gunpowder out of the Tower. We can not tell who it was because the record book for 1604 is missing! Who could it have been? Catesby and Percy were the leaders of the plot. They were both shot dead. Catesby and Percy were shot dead on the specific orders of Robert Cecil. He did not want them taken alive. The man who killed them received a pension for the rest of his life Thirty Six barrels of Gunpowder were loaded into the cellar by Guy Fawkes. Men were sent to the cellars and Guy Fawkes was arrested. He made a full confession

13 The 36 barrels of gunpowder were kept in a cellar next to Parliament. The cellar was rented to Thomas Percy by John Whynniard, a friend of Robert Cecil. Whynniard died suddenly and unexpectedly on the morning of 5 November All supplies of Gunpowder were kept under guard in the Tower of London. The records for 1604 are missing. One of the plotters, Francis Tresham, was Monteagle’s brother-in-law. He was the only plotter who was not captured quickly. He was only caught on 12 December. He died of a mysterious illness on 22 December, locked away in the Tower of London. Some said he had been poisoned. Holbeach House, where some other plotters were hiding out, was surrounded on 7 November, only two days after Guy Fawkes was captured. According to the Government report, it took them two days of torture to get Fawkes to reveal his real name, never mind his role in the plot (which he didn't reveal for another 2 days) and the names of the other plotters were not revealed for another 6 days!

14 According to a Catholic visitor to London in 1604, Robert Cecil said: “The King is too kind to Catholics. This gives great offences to others. We cannot hope for good government while we have a large number of people who obey foreign rules as Catholics do. The Catholic priests preach that Catholics must even kill the King to help their religion.” Lord Monteagle took the warning letter to Robert Cecil on 27 October. The cellars below Parliament weren't searched until at least a week later. Part of Thomas Winter’s confession, read out at the trial. The original confession has never been seen. A copy was written out by Robert Cecil for the trial. “We were working under a little entry to the Parliament house. We under-propped it with wood. We bought the gunpowder and hid it in Mr Percy’s house. We worked another two weeks against the stone wall, which was very hard to get through. At that time we called in Kit Wright. About Easter we rented the cellar. After this Mr Fawkes laid into the cellar 1000 sticks and 500 faggots” Note: a faggot is an old fashioned word for a bundle of firewood Their Punishment After a quick trial the plotters were sentenced to death! They were dragged through the streets of London, hung until they were NEARLY dead, cut down, cut open and their insides pulled out and burned in a fire in front of them. The their corpses were cut into pieces and put on display around the country.

15 Was Guy Fawkes framed? As a table complete this: Look through all of the EVIDENCE. You need to sort it out into Evidence we have found that Guy Fawkes was framed is.. We think the most important piece of evidence is Because Evidence we have found that Guy Fawkes was not framed is.. We think the most important piece of evidence is Because

16 Was Guy Fawkes framed? Level 4 (on baseline) One reason he could be framed is… because One reason he was not framed is… because Overall I think he was … because Level 5+ (on baseline) One reason he could be framed is… because Another reason he could be framed is… because One reason he was not framed is… because Another reason he could be not framed is… because Overall I think he was … because Bonus! For an even better answer support your reasons with a quote from the sources!

17 SourceDoes it prove the gunpowder plotters were framed? Yes or no? What evidence (quotes) from the source do you have to prove this? Who wrote the source? Is that important? A B C D E F G H I Were the Gunpowder Plotters Framed? In 1605, there were laws past against people who were Catholic because King James I was Protestant. Catholic Priests were ordered to leave the country or they would be executed. A small group of Catholics decided that they wanted James dead. They hoped a new King or Queen would treat them better. Every year the King or Queen officially opened Parliament. In 1605, Parliament was due to be opened on 5 November. Most of the important people of England would be there—they still are today! The plot was to blow up the King when he was in Parliament, take his young daughter, Elizabeth, who lived in the Midlands and place her on the throne instead. She was far too young to rule of course and so would need help... From Catholics! Were the Gunpowder Plotters Framed? Explain your answer

18 I definitely agree I definitely disagree The Gunpowder Plotters were framed

19 Remember, remember the 5 th of November, Gunpowder treason and plot, I see no reason why gunpowder, treason, Should ever be forgot. What does each line refer to?

20 Why did the English go to war with themselves? What can I learn from this source? What do I know already that helps explain this source? What else do I need to know to explain this source? What other questions do I want to ask?

21 Why did the English go to war with themselves? What can I learn from this source? What do I know already that helps explain this source? What else do I need to know to explain this source? What other questions do I want to ask?

22 Annotate and label this painting of Charles 1st What impression do you get of Charles 1 st ? How can you tell?

23 Title: Why did the English go to war with themselves? Date:____________________ Learning Objectives: To know the causes of the civil war To understand the different groups involved Learning Outcomes: To be able to prioritise the causes of the civil war

24 What is a Civil War? In pairs decide on what a Civil War is and complete the sentence in the front of your books A Civil War is… (Max 10 words)

25 The King was to blame (Royalists) The Parliamentarians were to blame (Roundheads) Other reasons the war started Why did the English Civil War start?

26 Why did the Civil War start? The king can be to blame because…… Another reason why the King maybe to blame is……. The Parliament can be to blame because…… Another reason why the Parliament maybe to blame is……. In conclusion I think …… was to blame because…..

27 Charles I was a firm believer in the "divine right of kings” How far does this statement explain why the English went to war with themselves? Explain your answer 7eA Success Criteria Write 3/4 - 1 side of your book Give 2 reasons to agree AND 2 reasons to disagree Explain each reason Refer to the History literacy objectives Use the writing frame to guide your structure Structure Introduction: 2 sentences Who was Charles I and why did the country go to war with him? What does ‘divine right’ mean? Main Give two reasons why Charles’ belief in the ‘divine right’ WAS the cause of civil war explain those reasons Give two reasons why Charles’ belief in the ‘divine right’ WAS NOT the cause of civil war explain those reasons Conclusion Why do you think the civil war broke out?

28 Learning Objectives: To know who the two sides were and understand who fought in the civil wars To be able to comment on which side you would rather be part of and why Learning Outcomes: To be able to identify the strengths and weaknesses of each side Title: Who fought in the civil war? Date: _________________

29 Roundheads Cavaliers Who fought in the civil war? Can you spot any similarities and differences between the two sides?

30 Royalists V Parliamentarians Do recognise any parts of these names? What do you think each side wanted? Draw a table in your books The King is chosen by God – he has a divine right to rule Parliament’s job is to follow the Kings commands No King of England should marry a foreign Catholic The King is there to serve his country – not the other way around One man cannot govern an entire nation Who fought in the civil war?

31 Job/ Role: What do they do? Who do they protect? When do they fight? And how? Equipment? What equipment do they carry? What do they wear? Danger: How dangerous do you think their job is? What are the possible dangers? Overall importance: How important do you think these soldiers are and why? Who fought in the Civil War?

32 Job/ Role: What do they do? Who do they protect? When do they fight? And how? Equipment? What equipment do they carry? What do they wear? Danger: How dangerous do you think their job is? What are the possible dangers? The Cavalry

33 Job/ Role: What do they do? Who do they protect? When do they fight? And how? Equipment? What equipment do they carry? What do they wear? Danger: How dangerous do you think their job is? What are the possible dangers? The Musketeers

34 Job/ Role: What do they do? Who do they protect? When do they fight? And how? Equipment? What equipment do they carry? What do they wear? Danger: How dangerous do you think their job is? What are the possible dangers? The Pike men

35 Organise your army! You are being attacked Using half a page in your books position your army to face the enemy You have 8 blocks of Pike men (Red) You have 5 blocks of Musketeers (Blue) You have 3 blocks of cavalry (Green) You have one Commander (Black Dot!) Enemy Where are you going to position your army?

36 Learning Objectives To know what the new model army was To understand the reasons why it was formed Learning Outcome: To be able to comment on how it was run and if it was successful Title: Was the New Model Army a success? Date: ________________ Complete the Single bubble that describe a soldier Soldier

37 Complete the Single bubble that describe a soldier Soldier

38 Battles! The first major battle of the civil war was at Edgehill in 1642 and it ended in a draw! The King’s cavalry performed well and Parliament realised that they needed a better army if they were going to win the war! Oliver Cromwell, a member of Parliament and Roundhead Commander, was given the job!

39 The New Model Army proved how good it was by winning important battles. At Naseby the Kings army was almost wiped out by a series of clever moves and brave changes by Cromwell's men. On May King Charles decided to give up the fight. SourceDoes it say the new model army was a success? Yes or no? What evidence (quotes) is there to prove this from the source? What does this evidence mean? Why did this mean it was successful? Explain Source A These men were strictly trained and strictly disciplined. But above all, they fought for God. Singing hymns, they charged into battle and their discipline proved too much for Rupert’s Cavalry, for although the cavaliers were good horsemen, they were not always good soldiers Source B Give me a russet coated captain who knows what he fights for and loves what he knows, than that which you call a gentlemen and is nothing else Source C Cromwell taught his cavalrymen to care for their horses and clean their weapons...regular training and strict discipline made his cavalry easier to control than the Royalist cavalry

40 The New Model Army proved how good it was by winning important battles. At Naseby the Kings army was almost wiped out by a series of clever moves and brave changes by Cromwell's men. On May King Charles decided to give up the fight. SourceDoes it say the new model army was a success? Yes or no? What evidence (quotes) is there to prove this from the source? What does this evidence mean? Why did this mean it was successful? Explain Source A Source B Source C Title – Was the New Model Army a success? Copy the table below into your books, use 2/3 of a page

41 Source A These men were strictly trained and strictly disciplined. But above all, they fought for God. Singing hymns, they charged into battle and their discipline proved too much for Rupert’s Cavalry, for although the cavaliers were good horsemen, they were not always good soldiers Does it say the new model army was a success? Yes or no? What evidence (quotes) is there to prove this from the source? What does this evidence mean? Why did this mean it was successful? Explain

42 Does it say the new model army was a success? Yes or no? What evidence (quotes) is there to prove this from the source? What does this evidence mean? Why did this mean it was successful? Explain Source B Give me a russet coated captain who knows what he fights for and loves what he knows, than that which you call a gentlemen and is nothing else

43 Does it say the new model army was a success? Yes or no? What evidence (quotes) is there to prove this from the source? What does this evidence mean? Why did this mean it was successful? Explain Source C Cromwell taught his cavalrymen to care for their horses and clean their weapons...regular training and strict discipline made his cavalry easier to control than the Royalist cavalry

44 Explain why the New Model Army was a success. Success Criteria Write 1/3 – 1/2 of a side of your book Give 3 reasons for the success Explain why each reason led to success Refer to the History literacy objectives Use the writing frame to guide your structure The New Model Army was a success. One reason it was a success was … This led to it being a success because … A second reason it was a success was … This led to it being a success because … Another reason it was a success was … This led to it being a success because …

45 Title: Did people want the King to lose his head? Date: ______________ Learning Objectives: To know how the civil war came to an end To understand the events that led to the trial of Charles I Learning Outcomes: To be able to successfully complete an assessment next lesson

46 The Execution of Charles 1st

47 Complete the thought bubbles

48 Title - Did people want the King to lose his head? Source 1 I saw the blow given, I can truly say with a sad heart. At that instant, I remember well, there was such a groan by thousands then present, as I never heard before and desire I may never hear again In your books 1)Does this source show people wanted the king to lose his head? 2)How do you know? Evidence from the source

49 Title - Did people want the King to lose his head? In your books 1)Does this source show people wanted the king to lose his head? 2)How do you know? Evidence from the source Source 2 The King’s head was thrown down and his hair was cut off. Soldiers dipped their swords in his blood. Base language was used over his dead body.

50 Title - Did people want the King to lose his head? In your books 1)Does this source show people wanted the king to lose his head? 2)How do you know? Evidence from the source Source 3 When they had murdered him, those who wanted to dip their handkerchiefs in his blood were admitted for which the soldiers took a shilling (5p).

51 SourceYes, no or both? What evidence (quotes) is there to prove this from the source? What does this evidence mean? Explain Source 1 I saw the blow given, I can truly say with a sad heart. At that instant, I remember well, there was such a groan by thousands then present, as I never heard before and desire I may never hear again Source 2 The King’s head was thrown down and his hair was cut off. Soldiers dipped their swords in his blood. Base language was used over his dead body. Source 3 When they had murdered him, those who wanted to dip their handkerchiefs in his blood were admitted for which the soldiers took a shilling (5p). Source 4 The King was beheaded. It much discontents the citizens. Did people want the King to lose his head? Did people want the King to lose his head? Explain your answer

52 SourceYes, no or both? What evidence (quotes) is there to prove this from the source? What does this evidence mean? Explain Source 1 Source 2 Source 3 Source 4 Did people want the King to lose his head? Did people want the King to lose his head? Explain your answer

53 Source 1 I stood amongst the crowd where the scaffold was erected, and saw what was done. I saw the blow given, I can truly say with a sad heart. At that instant, I remember well, there was such a groan by thousands then present, as I never heard before and desire I may never hear again Source 2 The King’s head was thrown down and his hair was cut off. Soldiers dipped their swords in his blood. Base language was used over his dead body. Source 3 When they had murdered him, those who wanted to dip their handkerchiefs in his blood were admitted for which the soldiers took a shilling (5p). Source 4 The King was beheaded. It much discontents the citizens. Source 5 ‘Here is a letter from King Charles to his son. He is asking his son to get a foreign army together to invade England. Charles wants foreigners to kill Englishmen. He can’t be trusted … he’s a traitor” Did people want the King to lose his head?

54 Source 5 ‘Here is a letter from King Charles to his son. He is asking his son to get a foreign army together to invade England. Charles wants foreigners to kill Englishmen. He can’t be trusted … he’s a traitor’ Does this source explain peoples reaction to the execution of the King? Success Criteria Write 1/3 – 1/2 of a side of your book Explain why it does explain people’s reactions Explain why people may have had other reactions Refer to the History literacy objectives Use the writing frame to guide your structure Structure The source does explain people’s reaction to the execution of the King because … There is evidence in the source to support this … However, I know that there were other reactions such as … People had different reactions because …

55 Major Event The Execution of Charles 1st Root Causes Causes Effect Homework: Complete the multi flow map for next lesson. Cause and Effect: The major function is to show causes- which can be sorted by root, immediate, proximal or long term causes- and their effects in relation to a major event; can be indefinitely expanded to include multiple cases.

56 Title: Why was Charles I executed? Date: ______________ Learning Objectives: To know how the civil war came to an end To apply our knowledge of Charles I and the Civil War Learning Outcomes: To complete your assessment

57 Title: Why was Charles I executed? In pairs can you think of two reasons? Write them in the front of your books

58 "traitor and murderer; and a public and cruel enemy to the Kingdom of England." "the office of the king in this nation is unnecessary and dangerous to the freedom and public interest of the people.“ “Charles wants foreigners to kill Englishmen.” Why was Charles I executed? Why was Charles executed according to this source?

59 Major Event The Execution of Charles 1st Root Causes Causes Effect Look back through your books and find causes of Charles’ execution. Cause and Effect: The major function is to show causes- which can be sorted by root, immediate, proximal or long term causes- and their effects in relation to a major event; can be indefinitely expanded to include multiple cases. After the execution what happened in England?

60 On the back of your sheet their is a writing frame to help you. Your essay should be ¾ of a side of your book minimum. Look at the level descriptors to see what you need to include to do better than your last assessment. You have the rest of this lesson to complete the assessment.

61 Title: Why was Charles I executed? Date: ______________ Learning Objectives: To apply our knowledge of Charles I and the Civil War To develop our written skills Learning Outcomes: To produce a newspaper article on the execution of the King

62 What you could include in your news report? Pictures of the execution Report live from the scene Interviews with a member of the crowd Details of what happened during the execution Studio newsreader What people thought of the execution People reporting from the action

63 Level 4Level 5Level 6 Knowledge and content  Your news report describes briefly about the execution.  Your news report shows some factual knowledge.  You describe in detail what happened.  You say why the even is significant  Your news report shows in depth factual knowledge.  You explain in detail the execution’  You explain why the event is significant.  You also have different interpretation of the execution. Success Criteria

64 Title: Whatever happened to Cromwell’s head? Date: ______________ Learning Objectives: To understand Cromwell’s reign as ‘Lord Protector” To infer meaning from sources Learning Outcomes: To produce an obituary What does this image suggest about people’s feelings towards Oliver Cromwell?

65 Whatever happened to Cromwell’s head? Put the cards into chronological order and draw a timeline of the events into your book

66 1658 Cromwell dies. Doctor Bates cuts out and weighs his brain. He says it weighs 82.5 oz. The average brain weighs 49 oz. Bates is probably lying – why? 1660 King Charles II wants to punish Cromwell. His body is dug up and hanged at Tyburn. His head was stuck on a pole outside Westminster Abbey Head stays on the pole for 24 years. Strong wind blows the head off the pole. It is found by a soldier called Barnes who takes it home and hides it in his chimney Barnes dies and he tells his family where he has hidden the head. They sell it to a Frenchman who puts it in a museum The museum owner dies and a young actor called Samuel Russell buys it. He pays his rent by charging people to see it Russell sells the head to a group of businessmen for £230. It goes on display in Bond Street, London Dr Wilkinson buys the head. He keeps the head in a box, wrapped in silk. He writes that an ear is missing, there’s a hole in the top where a pole has been and there are axe marks on the neck Doctors examine the head. They decide that the man has definitely had his head cut off and that the pimples and warts do match Cromwell’s portrait Wilkinson’s family gives head away. The head is given to Cromwell’s old college, Sidney Sussex, in Cambridge. The head was buried secretly. It is still there today.

67 An obituary is a news article that reports the recent death of a person, typically along with an account of the person's life Write an obituary for Oliver Cromwell Must include: o information about his life o information about his career o information about his achievements and failures o a picture of him o be written in columns (like a newspaper article) o Research using textbooks

68 Title: Was Charles II really ‘the merry Monarch’? Date: _________________ Learning Objectives: To use sources to infer meaning To research an answer to the key question Learning Outcomes: To write a balanced answer

69 Was Charles II really ‘the merry Monarch’? What can I learn from this source? What do I know already that helps explain this source? What else do I need to know to explain this source? What other questions do I want to ask?

70 Was Charles II really ‘the merry Monarch’? How did people feel about Charles? (1) Letter sent by a man living in London to one of Charles II's advisers (1659) You cannot imagine how all people here are affected with joy at the hope of having a King again. His (Charles) picture is hung up in many places in the streets... there was a man yesterday who said that he had seen him lately and that he was not so handsome as that picture, at which the people were so angry that they fell upon the man and beat him soundly. (2) In his diary, John Evelyn described Charles II entering London. (29 May 1660) There were 20,000 soldiers... shouting with joy; the streets covered with flowers, the bells ringing, fountains running with wine. (3) John Evelyn, diary entry, (4th February, 1685) He (Charles II) had many great faults... He neglected the needs of the people... Wars, plagues, fires made his reign very troublesome and unprosperous. (4) Gilbert Burnet, History of My Own Time (1723) King Charles II... was corrupted by France... he was continually cheating his people... he was lazy... he enjoyed the pleasures of wit and laughter, with the most worthless, vicious men of his age.  In one colour highlight evidence of his popularity  In another colour highlight evidence he was considered ‘merry’  In another colour highlight evidence that he was disliked

71 Was Charles II really ‘the merry Monarch’? What evidence can you find? Charles II was ‘the merry Monarch’ I have evidence from the source …. This proves he was merry because … Also, from my research, I know that … This proves he was merry because … Charles II was not ‘the merry Monarch’ I have evidence from the source …. This proves he was not merry because … Also, from my research, I know that … This proves he was not merry because … Have I met the success criteria?  Is my argument balanced?  Have I used evidence (quotations) from the source?  Have I used evidence from my research time (textbooks)?  Have I explained how each of my points answers the question?  Have I come to a judgement? Judgement: What do you think? Why?

72 I have evidence from the source …. Because it says “he enjoyed the pleasures of wit and laughter”. This proves he was merry because … it implies that he liked to make jokes and laugh. I think this means that he did not take being a King seriously. Also, from my research, I know that …because it says that “all people here are affected with joy at the hope of having a King again”. This proves he was merry because …people were celebrating about having Charles as their King, this means he made them happy. I have evidence from the source …. Because it says “he was continually cheating his people”. This proves he was not merry because …it suggests that he was cheating people and not being a good King. Also, from my research, I know that …it says “Wars, plagues, fires made his reign very troublesome”. This proves he was not merry because …he brought trouble to the country in his reign and made people in the country unhappy.

73 Quick of the draw Each table has 5 tasks to try and complete before the other tables! You have the following to help you: The Making of the United Kingdom page 68/9 Changing Britain page The Making of the United Kingdom page 52/53 You must complete one task and then bring it back to the teacher to check before you collect the next task. The first table to complete the task wins! When your group is finished you need to answer the following question in your book while the other groups finish: Why did England have a King again and was it a good thing?

74 Title: Would you make a good Stuart Doctor? Date: _____________________ Learning Objectives -To investigate the health of Charles II - To research and evaluate some of the treatments used by Stuart Doctors - To assess our own decision making skills

75 Context (Background Information) In Stuart times, approaches to medicine were a combination of different idea’s. Some were very clever... But others were just crazy!!! Some Doctors were beginning to work out how the human body worked...while others didn’t have a clue! One of the most widely used cures was ‘blood letting’. This was based on an old Greek and Roman idea that too much blood in the body caused illness. The answer was to cut the patient and let the bad blood out and soon their body would be back to normal again. Needless to say it didn’t work, but that didn’t stop many of London’s famous Doctors trying it.

76 At 8:00 am on 2 February 1685, Charles II fainted!!! It soon became clear that he was very ill. A dozen Doctors crowded around him, this was their chance to prove themselves as great Doctors. Actually Year 8... This is YOUR chance to prove that YOU are great Doctors! If you succeed you will be reward... If you fail...well no one wants the blame for killing the King of England!

77 TreatmentDecision reachedReason you chose that decision Points you gained Was it a good decision? Yes or no? and why? Overall how did your group work? How successful were you? You are going to work in threes

78 TreatmentDecision reachedReason you chose that decision Points you gained Was it a good decision? Yes or no? and why?

79 Your Task! In groups you will be given a series of choices to make based on real treatments available at the time. Can you cure King Charles II?

80 2 February 1665 After collapsing, the King has been unconscious for two hours. As the Doctors arrive, he begins to wake up. He is in pain. Treatment 1 Do you? a)Open up a vein in his arm and drain 16 ounces of blood, then make him vomit? b)Do nothing and wait and see if he gets any better? c)Wash his hair in urine? Make your decision now!

81 Treatment 1 a)Yes, this is what the doctors did 5 points b)You must do something – you are one of the King’s doctors – you can’t jut sit there 0 points c)Don’t be silly, this is a Stuart cure for ringworm. It might be worth a try though 3 points

82 2 February 1665 The King is just as bad! You must keep trying! Treatment 2 Do you? a)Bleed him again, perhaps another 8 ounces of blood from his shoulder this time? b)Shave his head and burn his scalp to make it blister? c)Pray?! Make your decision now!

83 Treatment 2 a)This is what the doctors did. Bloodletting was the key to success... Or so they thought: 5 points b)The doctors did this too. Good thinking: 5 points c)Not a bad idea, perhaps God would help him 2 points

84 3 February 1665 The King is speaking again but still feels poorly. He still faints occasionally but recovers sooner than he did before (maybe you have been doing something right?) Treatment 3 Do you? a)Suggest injecting him with antibiotics? b)Drain more blood and then pump a liquid up his bottom to make him empty his bowels? c)Leave him alone, he seems better today – perhaps he is getting well? Make your decision now!

85 Treatment 3 a)Antibiotics? They’d never heard of them. Nobody knows what you are talking about – be careful, some people might think you are a witch! Points b)Good idea. This is what the Kings doctors did. 5 points c)Sounds sensible doesn’t it? But you are missing a days bleeding 0 points

86 4 February 1665 He wakes up bright and early but collapses again at dinner time. He seems to be getting worse!  Treatment 4 Do you? a)Bleed him again – more than before today? b)Give him powdered human skull in a sweet drink – this is viewed by many as a super cure for any illness? c)Call another Doctor; perhaps he can help more than you. Some people are saying that herbal remedies can really work? Make your decision now!

87 Treatment 4 a)Not a bad idea, but if you bleed too much you might put him ‘out of balance’ again 3 points b)This is what the doctors did 5 points c)Get another doctor! Don’ be ridiculous. The King’s doctors know what they are doing (even if he’s not getting better) 0 points

88 5 February 1665 The King is getting worse. He collapses again. He sometimes cries out in pain. The doctors are very frustrated. Treatment 5 Do you? a)Mash up the brain of a young man that has died violently, add some wine and horse dung and pour this over the Kings body? b)Carry out more bleeding – perhaps give him a laxative to empty his bowels? c)Force him to eat Peruvian tree bark, a general medicine used for fevers? Make your decision now!

89 Treatment 5 a)A good treatment, but one for the plague. Perhaps worth a try though! 3 points b)Another good treatment, perhaps tomorrow? 2 points c)This is what the doctors did: 5 points

90 6 February 1665 The King is worse. The doctors think there is great danger that he may die. Perhaps there is one last chance? Treatment 6 Do you? a)Cut his gums open with a new nail, and then hammer the nail into an old oak tree? b)Give him some oriental Bezour stone – this is a substance found in the stomachs of Persian goats. Added to wine, it should stop all poisons? c)Stop treating him; nothing you do seems to have any effect? Make your decision now!

91 Treatment 6 a)A common treatment for toothache – I don’t think the King has toothache, but you never know! 2 points b)This is what the doctors did: 5 points c)You can’t stop treating him, he’s the King! 0 points

92 The King is dead! Shortly after noon he collapsed for the last time. The doctors failed to keep him alive.


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