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ISLAM - “to submit” “There is no god but Allah: Muhammad is the prophet of Allah” Call to prayer.

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Presentation on theme: "ISLAM - “to submit” “There is no god but Allah: Muhammad is the prophet of Allah” Call to prayer."— Presentation transcript:

1 ISLAM - “to submit” “There is no god but Allah: Muhammad is the prophet of Allah” Call to prayer

2 Muhammad “The Prophet” n born @ 570 CE in Mecca n raised by an Uncle – Quraish clan n Hermit: spent time in solitude – prayed in mtn caves – Angel Gabriel appeared to him n “RECITE” n became QURAN – 1st convert to Islam – Muhammad’s 1st wife – merchant

3 HEJIRA n 622 CE n first year of Muslim Calendar n migration of Mu. & Muslims fm Mecca to Medina n Yathrib changed to Medina (City o/t Prophet) – 2nd holiest site in Islam n 630 CE: war w/ Meccans – captures Mecca n dedicates KA’ABA to Allah n smashes all idols n holiest site in Islam

4 FIVE PILLARS of ISLAM n Proclamation of Faith n Prayer five times a day – facing Mecca n Alms (charity) to the poor & aged n Fasting during Ramadan – Gabriel spoke to Mu – month of Hejira – no food/water btwn sunrise & sunset n Hajj: pilgrimage to Mecca ONCE in a lifetime KA’ABA

5 The QURAN n Muslim holy book – sits at the right hand of Allah n exact word of Allah as revealed to Mu. by Angel Gabriel – God becomes the Word n authority on religion, politics, law, economics & social life n forbidden to translate from Arabic n link btwn all Muslims

6 Quranic teachings n “people of the book” – Jews & Christians – treat w/ tolerance n be merciful & compassionate n repeat 1st Pillar three times in front of male Muslim to become a Muslim n “I divorce you” x3 n Paradise or Hell (Judgment Day) n Hadith: traditional sayings o/t prophet n Inshallah (the will of God) – Belief in predestination – God controls all that happens

7 Golden Age of Islam (1st four Caliphs: successors to the Prophet) n Abu-Bakr (632-634 CE) n Mu’s father-in-law n united all Arab tribes n Umar (634-644) – Syria/Egypt from Bz. Emp. – captured Baghdad & Jerusalem – most of Persia conquered – murdered by Persian slave n Uthman (644-656) – captured Egypt & N. Africa – assassinated by fellow Muslims n Ali (656-661) – Mu’s son-in-law (hus. of Fatima) – assassinated by own people

8 EXPANSION OF ISLAM n Arab armies united by their belief in Islam n Muslim warriors who died in combat won a place in paradise – Jihad n lure of riches (booty) n tolerant conquerors – special non-believers tax n Commerce spread

9 Islamic Sects (divisions) n Sunni Muslims (80-90%) – any devout male Muslim can be Caliph – high moral character – Majority n Shi’ites (Shiah) (10-20%) – only descendents of Ali can be Caliph – only Imams can guide Muslims to salvation – minority (except Iran) n Sufism: mystical Islam

10 Islamic Art

11 Mosques What is a minaret? What is a muezzin?

12 Islamic Customs and Laws n Follow strict dietary laws- – HALAL - name of Allah must be mentioned while animal is slaughtered – n Can’t drink alcohol n No gambling n Can’t kill animals for sport

13 Women in Islam n Men & women are spiritual equals n Hijab shows Muslim identity – recognize intelligence, not sexuality – seen as feminine n Hadith: “seeking knowledge is mandatory for all Muslims”


15 The Islamic (Arab) Empires n Umayyad Dynasty (661- 750 CE) – Damascus is capital – emphasized Arab culture n Arabic main language n Gradually gov’t jobs went to Arabs n Abbasid Dynasty (750- 1258 CE) – Baghdad (God given) is capital – more than 1 million ppl – Muslim more important than being Arab – built libraries, hospitals, irrigation, mosques, schools

16 Shari’a-Islamic Law n Evolved over time-all Muslims held same values n Traditions of Prophet (sunna) as revealed in reports (hadith) about Muh. words or deeds n Strict punishments for crimes- In some strongly Muslim countries there’s little difference between religious laws and country laws. n Ex: Death Penalty for murder

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