2Objectives The “agribusiness system” approach to marketing Size and scope of agribusinessVarious sectorsMarketing in the economyFunctions of marketingMarketing in agribusiness firms
3HistoryWhat is agriculture to most people? Farming, ranching, fishing??This was true until the early 1960s when “agribusiness” evolved into a complex system reaching well beyond the farmThe big picture included all things needed to bring food to the consumer.As it turned out aquaculture shares many similarities to traditional agribusiness.
4Agribusiness History The agribusiness system includes many facets: Not only production (e.g., farmers, hatchery managers), alsoOrganizations which provide inputs (e.g., fry, chemicals, feed)Processors the output (e.g., processing plants)Manufacturers (e.g., shrimp microwavable products)Transporters/Sellers/Brokers (e.g., retail grocery stores, seafood wholesalers, etc.)
5Agribusiness: Evolution Late 1800’s: self-sufficient farms!Then wars increased produce prices, stimulating more production (Recall: demand and supply). War was profitable even back then!Mechanization was developed largely due to labor shortages.Crop production became a focus of farmers. (They started purchasing inputs; this is where aquaculture is today!)Much of the manufacturing and processing was relocated off the farm to become businesses themselves.Preservation of raw products was also improved.This made food more convenient to consumers.
6The Agribusiness System Processing-Manufactoring SectorAquaculture Input SectorProduction SectorAgribusiness SystemNote: the success of each part depends upon the proper functioning of the other two!
7Agro-input subsystem: Seeds;Agro-chemicals; Agro-machinery;etcAgricultural Production Subsystem:Crop; Horticulture;Aquaculture;Animal Husbandary; ForestryAgro-Industrial Subsystem:Food industry; Food processing; Natural fiber industry; and cigarette industryMarketing Subsytem:Distribution; Promotion, Information market; Trade and Market structureService and supporting of Agricultural subsystem:Credit; Insurance; Transportation, Government Policy; Education; Agricultural Extension; Institutional
8The Input SubsectorProvides farmers with all things needed for production: feed, fry, equipment, fuel, chemicalsTotal level of inputs remains stagnant since WWII; but, type of inputs has varied greatly.If labor costs increase, you typically see a shift towards increased purchase of inputs (Since 1960, farm labor has decreased 50%!)Purchase of more inputs actually facilitates more production.
9The Input Subsector Use/efficiency of energy usage has also changed. Relatively few input businesses compared to production or processing (look at feed manufacturing vs. the number of farms!)Why is this trend observed??
10The Production Subsector Larger farms in all areas (including aqua-)!Corporate farmsNew technologies have resulted in increased specialization of productiongenetically altered animalsspecific pathogen-free stocks (big deal in aqua-)What does this mean?Stability in that aquaculture production is becoming more diversified
11The Production Subsector Specialization also allows for increased production efficiency (telltale sign: increased production in face of decreased or constant levels of input)Another blast from the past: production economicsproduction costs increase every year due to increase input costbut cost of inputs is not related to commodity prices (e.g., shrimp)when commodity prices drop, gross farm income falls, but amount spent on inputs doesn’t (the great squeeze!)
12The Production Subsector Two sizes of farms: Large (economies of scale) and small (no economy of scale)Large farms: new technologies (aeration, telemetry, genetically-improved strains)Small farms can also, however: sell something that commands a high price! ($16/lbs. shrimp!)
13The Processing-Manufacturing Subsector Includes all business that turn raw materials into finished (or partially-finished) productsIn aquaculture, mostly done by processorsAlso includes packaging, distribution, and sales, places and forms desired by consumers (Marketing bill?)Marketing bill represents 70% of total amount spent by consumers on food!!!
14The Processing-Manufacturing Subsector Firms in this sector are very large (again, gathering economies of scale); very responsive to consumer tastes/ preferencesExamples: Indofood; WingsFood; Garuda-Food; Cargill, etcThe Marketing Bill: What are you paying for?
15Big Companies: How do they work? Obviousley, aquaculture depends flexibility and diversification for sucess, not isolation.Many large companies have divisions in other parts of the agribusiness systemExample: Cargill, Inc., one of the largest grain traders in the world, also largest soybean processor, flour miller, feed manufacturers, seed producers, etc.!!!
16Part 2: Role of Marketing in the Agribusiness System Lowers prices/increase availability1) bridge between producers and consumers2) helps producers understand consumer needs3) helps producers decide what to produce4) helps consumers know what products are available and at what pricesBottom Line: Consumer satisfaction!!, higher profits for producers! Everyone wins!!Extension of the business world?? Maybe!
18Four Utilities of Marketing form: to process the product into a form desired or needed by the consumer (fish in the round vs. nuggets)place: transporting the product to a location desired by the consumer (shipping, convenience= big deal!!!)time: storagepossession: gaining ownership so it can be legally used
19Evaluating Performance of the Marketing System How well does the marketing system meet the needs of consumers?: it has to be measuredTwo criteria or yardsticks:efficiency: how well goods and services flow from businesses to consumersfairness: how the marketing system meets the needs of the consumersWhen you buy something, you are saying that you like the price, the goods/services, etc.Rating of the system is indirect through voting and has led to the rise of consumerism.
20Market Performance Evaluation Criteria Market Structurenumber and size of firms in the market (no monopolies)barriers to market entry/exit (not prevented by other firms)degree of product and price competition (allows increased quality)Conduct of Firms in the Marketfirms compete via price (sell at lower price)no unlawful cooperation between firms (price fixing-this still happends)truthful product claims (better? Show me the data!)meaningful product differences (Are different models different?)Market Performanceoptimal output available at minimal price (appropriate tech, conserve resources)reasonable levels of profits (good firms deserve this)encouragement of innovation (products should be improved over time, how is this possible with seafood??)reasonable levels of investment (firms support in industry, new tech, higher efficiency, devleopment of company)