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Zanzibar and Tanganyika: The (Un)Making of a Union

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Presentation on theme: "Zanzibar and Tanganyika: The (Un)Making of a Union"— Presentation transcript:

1 Zanzibar and Tanganyika: The (Un)Making of a Union



4 Introduction: Thinking in Metaphor
Horticulture metaphor –seeds of nationalism Historical writing on Zimbabwe Cecil Rhodes and the Chimurenga of 1896, “seeds of nationalism” Anti-colonial seeds 1930s – “seeds put down roots” – economic conditions Post-WWII – growing discontent, “flowering” “Second Chimurenga” of the 1970s v. Ian Smith 1978, end of colonialism – “fruits of independence”

5 Introduction: Thinking in Metaphor
Horticulture metaphor –seeds of nationalism Misleading: Believe nationalism sprung from resistance of 1890s Zimbabwe – legitimating for Robert Mugabe – power resides in people of 1890s 1950s/1960s – school of historians – “roots of nationalism” Simplicity attractive – story much more complex Complexity and post-independence Africa

6 East Africa and Zanzibar
Zanzibar and colonial rule in E. African context Germany – mainland of Tanganyika (until WWI) British Protectorate (1890) – Zanzibar and 6 mile coastal strip British/German trade for islands in the Baltic Sea British colonial rule in Zanzibar Economically viable – agricultural production and taxation Politically – Busaidi Sultanate (like Kabaka, Uganda) Bombardment of Stone Town (August, 1896), succession crisis Destruction of Beit al-Sahel and Beit al-Hukm Shortest war in history, 38 minutes

7 East Africa and Zanzibar
British colonial rule “Divide and Rule” Colonial Institutions – categories of race and ethnicity codified Executive Council – Arab and Asian representation Legal codes and African customary law Historic fluidity now reified

8 East Africa and Zanzibar
British colonial rule Economy and free market principles Arab Indebtedness to Asian lenders. Threat of insolvency and fear of agricultural collapse British agricultural subsidies failed. Marketing Board – Clove Growers Association (CGA) in 1928 – controlled prices and export (1937) Protection of Arab landlords at expense of Asians. Forbid Asian land ownership of plantations Boycotts in India on demand side 1938 – “Heads of Agreement” – guaranteeing export to Asians, but prices remained fixed NOT a free market – interference of state in economy, put another way, economy embedded in institutions

9 Growth of Anti-colonial Politics
World War II – Turning Point Fighting in Southeast Asia African conscriptions, self-determination and British invincibility East African Politics Kenya – Violence and Mau Mau Settler Society Anti-colonial and Civil War Tanzania – Comparatively Peaceful

10 Mainland Tanzania Julius Kambarage Nyerere and TANU
Studied at Makerere University and University of Edinburgh; devout Catholic Founded Tanganyika African Association (TAA) in 1929 – civic organization for civil servants 1954 – transforms into the politically oriented Tanganyika African National Union (TANU) Demand of national sovereignty Registration, leading political organization British ultimatum – school teacher or politician Oratory skills – speech to United Nations First elections – entered LegCo; 1960 chief minister Tanzanian independence, Dec. 9, 1961 – Prime Minister

11 Zanzibar Trade Unions – 1948 – dockworkers protest British and Arab domination Influenced by strikes in Mombasa and Dar Spreads in Stone Town – Government and domestic servants, ex-slaves, migrants, indigenous Zanzibari population 1958 – Spreads to rural areas – formation of Zanzibar Nationalist Party (ZNP) Planters, Arab minority, formed out of Arab Association of the 1920s 1957 Elections Afro-Shirazi Party (ASP) Formed with African Association and Shirazi Association Shirazi identity – challenge Arab hegemony “The trees are yours, the land is ours” Cooper – Class consciousness

12 Zanzibar Increasingly rigged elections (1959/1961) – Increasingly acrimonious political party conflict ZNP minority – disproportionate representation 1961 election riot – Stone Town, spread to rural areas 68 dead, 381 injured Assaults at polling stations, groups targeting Arabs, settling of old scores June 1963 vote – British introduce limited self-government ASP lost, despite winning 54% of the vote (gerrymandering) December 10, 1963 – Sultanate of Zanzibar established

13 Zanzibar Revolution John Okello –
Similar to Clement Khadalie in South Africa Born in Uganda, orphaned Peripatetic life – moved to Kenya, unskilled jobs – gardener, house servant, office clerk, laborer 1959 – travels to Pemba for work (cloves) Joins ASP, begins amassing following Message from God to unite the struggle and overthrow oppressors in Zanzibar Moves to Unguja – joins trade union – builds mass following Not a major player in ASP, nor close to its head, Abeid Amani Karume

14 Zanzibar Revolution January 11th, 1964 - Revolution
ASP – Committee of Fourteen plans revolution Karume tries to warn British police, not taken seriously “Field Marshall” Okello leads some 600 supporters Some 12,000 Arabs and Indians killed Arabs and Indians flee, together with their capital Zanzibar’s last Sultan, Jamshid ibn Abdullah, flees to Britain in exile Creation of new Zanzibar Government Okello lacked support Karume made himself President of the People’s Republic of Zanzibar and Pemba

15 Union of Tanganyika and Zanzibar
Aftermath of Zanzibar Revolution Nyerere fear of destabilization. Himself survived an army mutiny Act of Union – provide Nyerere power to intervene unilaterally Karume – economic devastation of Revolution; lack of foreign aid for leftist organization – Union his only option April 26, 1964 – United Republic of Tanzania Nyerere – President Karume – one of two Vice Presidents Okello – barred from returning from mainland to Zanzibar

16 United Republic of Tanzania
National Assembly 343 seats, 50 for Zanzibar Union matters – foreign affairs, taxation, education Laws passed applicable to Zanzibar on Union matters – increasing number of Union matters defined by fiat Legal system Five-level judiciary Combination of English common law, African customary law, and Islamic law Zanzibar House of Representatives 76 members – jurisdiction over all non-Union issues “Semi-autonomous” government – unique Islamic courts still govern many matters

17 Arusha Declaration February 1967 – Socialist economic program/African socialism. One-party state, no ethnic organizations. Ally with China in Sino-Soviet rivalry/TANZAM railway. “Ujamaa” – “Familyhood” Collectivization, or villagization, as country’s agricultural policy 1970s – Forcible transfers into collective farms. By 1977, 80% of population uprooted Food denial to those who resisted Abandonment of crops and structures Food production plummeted – once one of largest producers now one of largest recipients of food aid Ujamaa villages – 90% population, 5% of production Nationalization Banks, retail, import-export Corruption and repression extreme – “Wabenzi”

18 Zanzibar after Union Divisions, including pro-government Unguja and pro-opposition Pemba Karume Economic ruin similar to mainland Paranoid and dictatorial – mass deportations of Asians and remaining Arabs April 1972 – assassinated Creation of Chama Cha Mapinduzi – CCM (Revolutionary Party) – February 1977 Aboud Jumbe – successor to Karume Merger of Zanzibar’s ASP with Mainland’s TANU

19 End of African Socialism
1980s – Tanzania in economic ruin IMF and World Bank impose structural adjustment Nyerere forced to step down; Ali Hassan Mwinyi handpicked successor Forced privatization of industries Nyerere – left Tanzania one of poorest, least developed, and most dependent on foreign aid “Father of the Nation” End of one-party system – first multiple party elections in 1995 – Mkapa to power, followed by Kikwete Zanzibar – Continued fraught politics and violence Police brutality, arbitrary arrests, “treason trial” 2000 Elections – 26 demonstrators killed, brought Karume

20 Conclusion Hardening of ethnic and racial categories under British colonial rule Creation of institutions and structures, both political and economic, to facilitate preferential access to state and wealth Tensions created and heightened in colonial period gifted to independent government African nationalism not a neat, heroic story Nyerere and African socialism Failure economically, but… High literacy rates African conceptions of modernity Contemporary culture

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