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Biotechnology The manipulation of living things to make products benefiting human beings.
Biotechnology Timeline 1910 - the term was first used 1950’s - DNA discovered 1970’s – Today birth of the biotech industry transfer of genes between organisms stem cell research cloning
Industrial Uses of Biotechnology Waste Management Biomining DNA Chips
Biotechnology for Health Human Genome Project (HGP) Genetic Testing Human Gene Therapy Xenotransplantation
Cloning Medical Uses of Cloning Ethical Concerns
Biotechnology and Agriculture Genetically Engineered Crops Transgenic Animals and Plants Internationally Concerns with GM Foods
History of Agricultural Technology: From Domestication Through Today
What have you eaten today? Fruit Coffee/Tea Grains
Center of Origins North America Seeds 1. Sunflower 2. Acorns Fruits 1. Blueberries 2. Strawberries History of Horticulture © 2002 Jules Janick, Purdue University
Center of Origins South America Root Tubers 1. Andean potato, Solanum andigenum (96 chromosomes) 2. Other endemic cultivated potato species. Grains and Legumes 1. Starchy maize, Zea mays amylacea 2. Lima bean, Phaseolus lunatus (secondary center) 3. Common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris (secondary center) Vegetable Crops 1. Pepino, Solanum muricatum 2. Tomato, Lycopersicum esculentum 3. Pumpkin, Cucurbita maxima 4. Pepper, Capsicum frutescens History of Horticulture © 2002 Jules Janick, Purdue University
Center of Origins India Cereals and Legumes 1. Rice, Oryza sativa 2. Chickpea or gram, Cicer arietinum 3. Pigeon pea, Cajanus indicus 4. Urd bean, Phaseolus mungo 5. Mung bean, Phaseolus aureus 6. Rice bean, Phaseolus calcaratus 7. Cowpea, Vigna sinensis Vegetables and Tubers 1. Eggplant, Solanum melongena 2. Cucumber, Cucumis sativus 3. Radish, Raphanus caudatus (pods eaten) 4. Taro, Colocasia antiquorum 5. Yam, Dioscorea alata Fruits 1. Mango, Mangifera indica 2. Orange, Citrus sinensis 3. Tangerine, Citrus nobilis 4. Citron, Citrus medica 5. Tamarind, Tamarindus indica Sugar, Oil, and Fiber Plants 1. Sugar cane, Saccharum officinarum 2. Coconut palm, Cocos nucifera 3. Sesame, Sesamum indicum 4. Safflower, Carthamus tinctorius 5. Tree cotton, Gossypium arboreum 6. Oriental cotton, Gossypium nanking 7. Jute, Corchorus capsularis 8. Crotalaria, Crotalaria juncea 9. Kenaf, Hibiscus cannabinus Spices, Stimulants, Dyes, and Miscellaneous 1. Hemp, Cannabis indica 2. Black pepper, Piper nigrum 3. Gum arabic, Acacia arabica 4. Sandalwood, Santalum album 5. Indigo, Indigofera tinctoria 6. Cinnamon tree, Cinnamomum zeylanticum 7. Croton, Croton tiglium 8. Bamboo, Bambusa tulda History of Horticulture © 2002 Jules Janick, Purdue University
Center of Origins Middle-East: Grains and Legumes 1. Einkorn wheat, Triticum monococcum (14 chromosomes) 2. Durum wheat, Triticum durum (28 chromosomes) 3. Poulard wheat, Triticum turgidum (28 chromosomes) 4. Common wheat, Triticum vulgare (42 chromosomes) 5. Oriental wheat, Triticum orientale 6. Persian wheat, Triticum persicum (28 chromosomes) 7. Triticum timopheevi (28 chromosomes) 8. Triticum macha (42 chromosomes) 9. Triticum vavilovianum, branched (42 chromosomes) 10. Two-row barley, Hordeum distichum, H. nutans 11. Rye, Secale cereale 12. Mediterranean oats, Avena byzantina 13. Common oats, Avena sativa 14. Lentil, Lens esculenta 15. Lupine, Lupinus pilosus, L. albus Forage Plants 1. Alfalfa, Medicago sativa 2. Persian clover, Trifolium resupinatum 3. Fenugreek, Trigonella foenum graecum 4. Vetch, Vicia sativa 5. Hairy vetch, Vicia villosa Fruits 1. Fig, Ficus carica 2. Pomegranate, Punica granatum 3. Apple, Malus pumilo (one of the centers) 4. Pear, Pyrus communis and others 5. Quince, Cydonia oblonga 6. Cherry, Prunus cerasus 7. Hawthorn, Crataegus azarolus History of Horticulture © 2002 Jules Janick, Purdue University
The Value of Food A ratio that links the number of calories per obtained per serving to the amount of energy required in the production. Wheat Rice Corn Potato
Distribution of the global population How does this influence the population density's? North vs. South America Middle East vs. Europe Western vs. Eastern Hemisphere
History of food Transition from Hunter-gatherer to Agriculture specialization, population increases, culture, etc…. These early farmers unknowingly changed he plants they grew.
Agricultural Improvements Irrigation Domestication of animals. Plows Mechanization Diesel engine Fertilizer
Human Population Growth
Unintended Consequences Irish Potato Famine 2 million starved 2 million emigrated to the US Dust Bowl Deep soil tilling Residents migrated west
Modern Agriculture Organic vs. Conventional production Cost Environmental Concerns Regulation Popular
Modern Agriculture Gene Revolution -GM foods -patent laws Current Agricultural Practices -big seed companies -global market
Modern Agriculture Food miles Urbanization Food Security
Human Population Growth
LECTURE 10. Centers of Origin of Crop Plants The eight Vavilovian centers of origin for crop plants. The origin of crop plants is now basic to plant breeding.
Crops in Agriculture Corrin Breeding Plant and Soil Computers in Agriculture.
GENETIC RESOURCES: Resources that contain all genetic variability found in a particular plant species This includes its wild relatives; m ost of them.
Early Agriculture Outline of topics: I. Hunter-gathering II. Invention of agriculture - when, where, what, how, and why? III. Crop domestication IV. Important.
FOOD STAPLES HFA 4C NUTRITION AND HEALTH- MRS. M. FILINOV.
Origin of Domesticated Plants Wheat. Most domesticated food plants have been selected for: large plant parts soft edible tissue thick flesh with intense.
Ethnobotany Old and New. Ginseng root – Panax pseudoginseng.
Origin of Agriculture. Introduction Knowledge of time and place of origin is important –For taxonomists and plant breeders –Present day plants are much.
Uses of Plants Plant Science. Humans have 3 Basic Needs 1.Food 2.Clothing 3.Shelter 2
CPVO Seminar11-12 May Warsaw (PL) Community rules on “Farm-saved seed”. J. GENNATAS European Commission.
The Columbian Exchange. Before 1492 Two very different ecosystems Two different disease pools Two sets of flora and fauna Two sets of culturally diverse.
Juli and Danielle. Nutrition Right amount of nutrients to allow the body to grow and stay healthy.
Origin of Some Domestic animals and Plant Species.
Plant Classification. Classification Systems Climatic Warm Season Cool Season Tropical Use Agronomic Horticultural Ornimental Taxonomic.
Tanaman Makanan Food Crops AGR What are food crops? Any domesticated or wild species of any plant parts that are used for human or animal consumption.
PRT 2008 Lecture 8. Genetic resources Genetic material of actual or potential value.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Where Did Agriculture Originate? Invention of Agriculture –Prior to the advent of agriculture, all humans probably obtained.
Pulses or legumes Peas and Beans. Fabaceae Second most important family for humans A combination of grain and pulses is seen in major civilization –Barley.
The Role of Cultivated Plants in the Living World Crop Science 1 Fall 2004.
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa). Sericea Lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata)
Human impact on the environment In this lesson you will learn about: the biological control of pest species the use of GM crops as an alternative to using.
Management and Conservation of Plant Genetic Resources in Lithuania Bronislovas Gelvonauskis Plant Gene Bank 2010.
Mrs. Schaffner. the science and technology of producing and using plants for food, fuel, feed, fiber, and reclamation.
Food, Land and People and World Civilizations Debra Spielmaker Utah Agriculture in the Classroom.
Colonization of the New World (1750). Trading in the Old World– New World Market Half of the students will be “New World Consumers” and the other half.
How Can We Globalize Food Sharing?/Why can not areas that do not provide enough food not provide?
Outline Federative Republic of Brazil. Personal Cali -Valle - Colombia Primary: Colombia Colegio Villegas Born: Education: College: Colombia National.
Agronomic Crops. Grain Crops Cereal grasses or other plants grown for their seed –Corn –WheatWheat –OatsOats –BarleyBarley –Sorghum (milo)Sorghum (milo)
Plant Science Introduction Standards and Objectives.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Agriculture Defined The deliberate modification of Earth’s surface through cultivation of plants and rearing of animals.
Key Issue 1: Where did Agriculture originate?. Invention of Agriculture Prior to the advent of agriculture, all humans probably obtained needed food through.
Agronomy. Grains Amber Durum Wheat (Triticum durum) Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) Flax (Linum usitatissimum) Flint Corn (Zea mays) Grain Sorghum (Sorghum.
Linnaeus. Levetin,E. and McMahon,K. (2003) Plants and Society. McGraw Hill; Boston.
Food Plants. Modern Day Inuit - Greenland Contemporary Hunter-Gatherers The San Bushmen.
Types of Plant Crops Unit 2. Food Groups Examine the items in front of you. Work with the other members of the class to put the items into six groups.
LECTURE 4: Origin of cultivated plants For thousands of years, farming communities have grown wild plants, adapted some of them, and carried out selection.
North Highlands, tropical wet South Marine west coast, arid East Tropical wet and dry, tropical wet, Humid subtropical West Tropical wet, Highlands, Mediterranean.
January 22, 2016S. Mathews1 Human Geography By James Rubenstein Chapter 10 Key Issue 1 Where Did Agriculture Originate?
The Colombian Exchange The exchange of physical elements such as, plants, animals, diseases, and weapons.
Types of Agriculture. Pastoral Nomadism Drylands of SW Asia, N Africa, C Asia and E Asia – where planting of crops is impossible Drylands of SW Asia,
Exchanges between the old and new world. * The cultural and economic exchanges between Europe and the explored areas of North America * Europe benefitted.
AGSC 231 Principles of Agronomy CLASSIFICATION OF CROPS By S.K. Yau (revised Feb 2010)
Agriculture and Rural Land Use. Agriculture Is the raising of animals or the growing of crops to obtain food for primary consumption by the farm family.
Genetically Modified Crops/Foods: The Future of the World Agricultural Economy? C. Ford Runge, Ph.D. University of Minnesota April 15, 2005.
What I did over the weekend! Urban Botany and Exploring New Frontiers.
Animal, Plant & Soil ScienceAnimal, Plant & Soil Science E1-1 The Importance of Plant Science.
Seed 2. Alfalfa Barley Bean (dry) Bermuda Grass.
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