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Nomenclature Scientific Plant Classification  Early Classification  Started by the Greek philosopher Theophrastus  Classified all plants into annuals,

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Presentation on theme: "Nomenclature Scientific Plant Classification  Early Classification  Started by the Greek philosopher Theophrastus  Classified all plants into annuals,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Nomenclature Scientific Plant Classification  Early Classification  Started by the Greek philosopher Theophrastus  Classified all plants into annuals, biennials, and perennials, according to life span  Herbs, shrubs, and trees, according to their growth habit  Modern Taxonomy  Modern classification of plants is based on Linnaeus (Carl von Lenné), a 18 th century Swedish physician and “the father of taxonomy” who revolutionized the field of plant and animal classification  Use of binomial nomenclature - Genus and species for scientific names  Use of trinomial nomenclature for horticultural crops  Genus, species, and cultivar for cultivated crops

2 Scientific Names Red Delicious Apple ClassificationRed Delicious Apple KingdomPlantae DivisionAnthrophyta ClassDicotyledonae OrderRosales FamilyRosaceae GenusMalus (or Malus) Speciesdomestica (or domestica) Variety (naturally occurring) (cultivar)‘Red Delicious’ Form-- Individual--

3 Botanical Names for Horticultural Crops  Mostly deals with family, genus, species, and cultivar  Binomial for botanical names  Italicize or underline genus and species  Genus species (or Genus species)  Do not underline or italicize family and cultivar names  Rosaceae (the rose family)  Malus domestica cv. Golden Delicious  Variety names may be underlined or italicized  Picea glauca var. densata Black Hills Spruce  Picea pungens cv. Hoopsii Hoops Blue Spruce

4 Blue Spruce  Natural botanical varieties are seed propagated  Cultivars are propagated asexually by cuttings or grafting Picea pungens var. glauca Picea pungens cv. Hoopsii

5 Red Delicious or Golden Delicious Apples Malus domestica cv. Red Delicious Malus domestica ‘Red Delicious’ Malus domestica cv. Golden Delicious Malus domestica ‘Golden Delicious’ Golden Delicious was a sport of Red Delicious

6 Selected Terminology  Variety – A group of variants within a species which have similar characteristics  Cultivar – Cultivated variety, usually human-made Cultigen – A cultivar that has naturalized in a native stand  Ecospecies – A subdivision of species that are formed by ecological barrier (i.e., Cercis canadendensis, Redbud)  Clone – A group of plants all of which arose from a single individual (ortet) through asexual (vegetative) propagation  Clonal Cultivar – An asexually propagated clone (i.e., Russet Burbank potato, Royalty rose, etc.)  Pure Lines – Homozygous inbred lines grown from seed AAbbcc, aabbcc, aaBBcc, aabbCC  Hybrid Cultivar – A cultivar developed by hybridizing (crossing) two or more genetically diverse parental lines Genetically heterozygous, phenotypically uniform (homogeneous) AaBbCc (A=dominat allele, a=recessive allele)

7 Ecospecies of Redbud  Formed by ecological isolation  Clines with continuous variation in leaf pubescence from east to west Redbud

8 Some Horticulturally Important Families 1.RosaceaeRose Family 2.SolanaceaeNightshade Family 3.CucurbitaceaeGourd Family 4.BrassicaceaeMustard Family 5.ApiaceaeCelery Family 6.LiliaceaeLily Family 7.OrchidaceaeOrchid Family

9 Rosaceae (Rose Family) About 100 genera, 3000 species Rose, raspberry, blackberry, strawberry, prunus (peach, cherry, apricot, almond, plum), apple, pear, quince Examples –Rosa hybrida cv. RoyaltyRoyalty rose –Pyrus communis cv. Bartlett Bartlett Pear –Malus domestica cv. FujiFuji Apple –Fragaria ananasa Strawberry

10 Examples of Rosaceae Crops Rose Pear Strawberry AppleApricot

11 Solanaceae (Nightshade Family) About 90 genera, 2200 species Mostly native to South America Genus Solanum is the largest with 1700 species Many species contain alkaloids, solanine, nicotine, atropine Examples –Solanum tuberosumPotato –Solanum tuberosum ‘R usset Burbank ’ Russet Burbank potato –Petunia hybrida cv. Red CascadeRed Cascade petunia –Lycopersicon esculentumTomato –Capsicum frutescens ‘Red Bell’Red Bell pepper

12 Some Solanaceae Crops Bell pepper Tomato PotatoEggplant Yukon Gold Potato

13 Cucurbitaceae (Gourd Family) About 100 genera, 559 species Native to both the old and new worlds Mostly vines with tendrils Examples –Citrullus vulgaris Watermelon –Cucumis sativus Cucumber –Cucurbita pepoPumpkin –Cucurbita maximaSquash –Cucumis melo Muskmelon

14 Some Cucurbitaceae Crops Cucumber Watermelon, seedless Watermelon GourdsPumpkin Muskmelon

15 Some Cucurbit Displays at IHC06-Seoul

16 Brassicaceae (Cruciferae, Mustard Family ) About 350 genera, 3200 species Cole crops such as cabbage, broccoli, radish Many are common garden crops Typically 4-merous (cross-like flower petals) Examples –Brassica oleracea Cabbage, kale, kohlrabi, broccoli, cauliflower –Brassica napaPak Choi, Napa cabbage, turnip –Brassica junceaMustard –Raphanum sativaRadish, Daikon radish

17 Some Brassicaceae Vegetables

18 Apiaceae Formerly Umbeliferae, Celery or Parsnip Family About 250 genera, 2500 species Annual or biennial herb Umbel shape inflorescence (compound umbels) Examples –Daucus carotaCarrot –Apium graceolensCelery –Coriandrum sativumCoriander –Petroselinum hortenseParsley

19 Some Apiaceae Crops Coriander Purple carrot

20 Liliaceae (Lily Family) Monocots About 240 genera, 3000 species Specialized foot storage organs such as rhizomes, bulbs, fleshy roots) Include many ornamental plants Examples –Asparagus officinalisAsparagus –Lilium longiglorum Easter lily –Aloe barbadensisAloe vera –Allium cepaOnion –Tulipa spp. Tulips

21 Some Liliaceae Plants Garlic Trillium Easter lily Aloe vera Onion Tulip Asparagus 3-merous

22 Garlic Festival  Held in Gilroy, CA, - Garlic capitol of the world (122,000 visitors in 2004)  28th annual Gilroy garlic festival was held July 28-30, 2006

23 Orchidaceae (Orchid Family) Monocots About 800 genera, 30,000 species Mostly native to tropical and subtropical regions Epiphytic as well as terrestrial growth habits Many species are used as ornamentals Examples –Vanilla planifoliaVanilla orchid –Cattleya spp.Cattleya orchids –Dendrobium spp.Dendrobium orchids –Phalaenopsis spp.Phalaenopsis orchids –Cymbidium spp.Cymbidium orchids –Cypripedium reginaeLady slipper orchid

24 Some Orchidaceae Plants Vanilla orchid Vanilla flower Cattleya Lady Slipper Cattleya hybrid Phalaenopsis

25 Orchid popularity is increasing worldwide

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