Presentation on theme: "Subsistence FORAGING AND HORTICULTURE. Learning Objectives: Subsistence Unit 1. Identify the subsistence patterns found in human societies 2. Identify."— Presentation transcript:
Learning Objectives: Subsistence Unit 1. Identify the subsistence patterns found in human societies 2. Identify the cultural characteristics of a society that might be inferred from knowing the society’s subsistence patterns 3. Identify the changes brought about by the transition to food production.
Adaptive Strategies Means of making a living 1) Foraging 2) Horticulture 3) Agriculture 4) Pastoralism 5) Industrialism Will discuss at the end of the quarter
Foraging Until _________________this was the strategy of all humans Band – social system, fewer than __________ Rely on available natural resources Variation among world’s foragers
Foraging Rely on naturally occurring plants and animals Diets consisting of _____________________ Problem: Subject to Seasonality ____________________________________ Is this possible today? Often ____________ with neighboring food producers
Foraging: Hunting Typically a male domain though females help process foods _________________
Foraging: Gathering Typically a female domain Requires less travel Allows for infant care Provides most of the __________________
Foraging: Today All foraging groups utilize some form of food production OR food producers Why is this the case? Influenced by 1. 2.
Foraging: Ache Paraguay Earliest report of this group – 1600s Before 1960s, small nomadic bands Today: ____________________ 1. 2.
Foraging: San (Bushmen) 1997-2002: 3,000 of the 10,000 known San people were relocated ______________________________ 2006 court ruling -- ___________________ Global political action for indigenous peoples _________________________ ____________________________
Horticulture The ____________________________________ Hoes and digging sticks Fields are not continually planted Does not produce________________ Supplement diet by ______________________
Horticultural Techniques ________________ Shifting Cultivation Problems? _____________: Use of a high variety of plant species
Horticultural Groups Low _________________________ Lack of surplus maintains population size Some _______________________ Continuously exploit new soil when old plots have lost their usefulness Some ___________________________ Move horticultural plots rather than settlement