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Subsistence FORAGING AND HORTICULTURE. Learning Objectives: Subsistence Unit  1. Identify the subsistence patterns found in human societies  2. Identify.

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Presentation on theme: "Subsistence FORAGING AND HORTICULTURE. Learning Objectives: Subsistence Unit  1. Identify the subsistence patterns found in human societies  2. Identify."— Presentation transcript:

1 Subsistence FORAGING AND HORTICULTURE

2 Learning Objectives: Subsistence Unit  1. Identify the subsistence patterns found in human societies  2. Identify the cultural characteristics of a society that might be inferred from knowing the society’s subsistence patterns  3. Identify the changes brought about by the transition to food production.

3 Adaptive Strategies  Means of making a living  1) Foraging  2) Horticulture  3) Agriculture  4) Pastoralism  5) Industrialism  Will discuss at the end of the quarter

4 Foraging  Until _________________this was the strategy of all humans  Band – social system, fewer than __________  Rely on available natural resources  Variation among world’s foragers

5 Foraging  Rely on naturally occurring plants and animals  Diets consisting of _____________________  Problem: Subject to Seasonality  ____________________________________  Is this possible today?  Often ____________ with neighboring food producers

6 Foraging: Hunting  Typically a male domain though females help process foods  _________________

7 Foraging: Gathering  Typically a female domain  Requires less travel  Allows for infant care  Provides most of the __________________

8 Foraging: Today  All foraging groups utilize some form of food production OR food producers  Why is this the case?  Influenced by  1.  2.

9 Foraging: Inuit  1.  2.

10 Foraging: Ache  Paraguay  Earliest report of this group – 1600s  Before 1960s, small nomadic bands  Today: ____________________  1.  2.

11 Foraging: San (Bushmen)  : 3,000 of the 10,000 known San people were relocated  ______________________________  2006 court ruling -- ___________________  Global political action for indigenous peoples  _________________________  ____________________________

12 Foraging: San (Bushmen)

13 Horticulture  The ____________________________________  Hoes and digging sticks  Fields are not continually planted  Does not produce________________  Supplement diet by ______________________

14 Horticultural Techniques  ________________  Shifting Cultivation  Problems?  _____________: Use of a high variety of plant species

15 Horticultural Groups  Low _________________________  Lack of surplus maintains population size  Some _______________________  Continuously exploit new soil when old plots have lost their usefulness  Some ___________________________  Move horticultural plots rather than settlement

16 Horticulturalists of Today  1.  2.  3.  4.  5.  6.

17 Horticulturalists of Today


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