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Land use change between forestry and agriculture under the NZ ETS Author: Yue Wang Co-authors: Stephen Poletti, Golbon Zakeri, Joon Hwan(John) Kim, Basil.

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Presentation on theme: "Land use change between forestry and agriculture under the NZ ETS Author: Yue Wang Co-authors: Stephen Poletti, Golbon Zakeri, Joon Hwan(John) Kim, Basil."— Presentation transcript:

1 Land use change between forestry and agriculture under the NZ ETS Author: Yue Wang Co-authors: Stephen Poletti, Golbon Zakeri, Joon Hwan(John) Kim, Basil Sharp

2 Motivation How does the NZ ETS effect land use change between forestry and agricultural sectors? ETS is a key pillar approach to NZ climate change Largest emissions come from agriculture, forestry sequestrate carbon and was first enter into the ETS(MPI, 2012)

3 Model Base year: 2007 Steady-state forestry model links to the CGE NZ—small open economy 12 sectors, 5 types of land, factors (labor, capital) are mobile among sectors, land is mobile among 5 land- used sectors, joint production one household, government, enterprise, investment- savings, rest of world Four carbon tax scenarios ($0, $25, $50, $100)

4 Sectors Land-used sectors

5 Forestry

6 CGE production Three-level nesting, Leontief function at the top level and between domestic and imported Allow substitution between value-added input Sector IntermediateValue-added Domestic Import Capital Labor Leontief CES

7 Land allocation Five types of land; assuming a composite land used in the sector production. The Armington substitution (CET) is allowed for land allocation

8 Rest of world Domestic consumption: domestic output and imported goods (CET) The exchange rate is endogenous, world price is exogenous Foreign savings are exogenous Export consumption: exported output and domestic commodities (CET)

9 Agents Representative household: maximize utility, using the Linear expenditure system (LES) to seek the optimal level of commodity demand Government: Supply capital, collect tax from production, income, carbon emission, Leontief consumption Investment-Savings: Johanson macro-closure; exogenous investment and endogenous savings Enterprise: capital supplier Market clearing: both factor and commodity markets clear

10 Data

11 Results - Forestry ForestryPc=0Pc=25Pc=50Pc=100 rotation year yield timber price NPV NPV NPV NPV

12 Results - Land price change Land price is increasing due to the strong demand. Forestry land increases the most. pc=0pc=25pc=50pc=100 LForest LOther LGrass LScrub LCrop

13 Results - Forestland change Forest land demand by ind (hectares)Forestland use by ind/total Forestland hectares pc=0pc=25pc=50pc=100 Horticulture and fruit growing0% Sheep-beef42%3%1%0% Dairy6%0% Other agriculture2%0% Forestry50%96%99%100%

14 Results-Other land change Otherland demand by ind (hectares)Otherland use by ind/total otherland hectares Horticulture and fruit growing1%0% Sheep-beef91%62%30%9% Dairy4%2%1%0% Other agriculture3%1%0% Forestry2%34%69%91%

15 Results-grassland change Grassland demand by ind (hectares)Grassland use by ind/total grassland hectares Horticulture and fruit growing0% Sheep-beef81%70%46%18% Dairy14%11%5%0% Other agriculture3%2%1%0% Forestry1%17%47%82%

16 Results-scrubland change Scrubland demand by ind (hectares)Scrubland use by ind/total scrubland hectares Horticulture and fruit growing0% Sheep-beef84%26%8%2% Dairy4%1%0% Other agriculture3%1%0% Forestry9%73%92%98%

17 Results-cropland Cropland demand by ind (hectares)pc=0pc=25pc=50pc=100 Cropland use by ind/total cropland hectares Horticulture and fruit growing17%15%12%3% Sheep-beef73%71%61%36% Dairy7%6%4%0% Other agriculture3%2%1% Forestry0%6%22%60%

18

19 Pc=0Pc=25Pc=50Pc=100 GDP GDP EX Pc=0Pc=25Pc=50Pc=100 Pfx

20 Commodity price commodity pricepc=0pc=25pc=50pc=100 com , com , com , com , com com , com , com , com , com com , com

21 Import valuepc=0pc=25pc=50pc=100 Horticulture and fruit growing Sheep, beef cattle Other Agriculture Natural Forestry Minerals, oil and coal Processed Agricultural products Processed forestry products Other Manufactured products Utility Construction Services

22 Future work Contribution: First linking the steady state forestry model to the CGE for analyzing the land use change in NZ study. Results are more comprehensive. Future work: Estimation of the market clear domestic carbon credit (NZU) price

23 Appendix I (Forestry carbon payment)

24 Appendix II (Timber production)

25 Appendix -equations

26

27 Market clearing Commodity market:

28 Market clearing Factor market


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