Presentation on theme: "ASSESSMENT OF PROSPECTIVE IMPACT OF FRUITS AND VEGETABLES RESEARCH AT THE INDUSTRY LEVEL IN THE PHILIPPINES: THE CASE OF THE ACIAR – PCAARRD HORTICULTURE."— Presentation transcript:
ASSESSMENT OF PROSPECTIVE IMPACT OF FRUITS AND VEGETABLES RESEARCH AT THE INDUSTRY LEVEL IN THE PHILIPPINES: THE CASE OF THE ACIAR – PCAARRD HORTICULTURE PROJECT Dr. Roehlano M. Briones and Ivory Myka R. Galang Philippine Institute for Development Studies
Outline Objectives Research and Development (R&D) Assessment method Results of the assessment Analysis of the results
Objectives Analyze the contribution of the fruits and vegetables subsector in agricultural development. Evaluate the potential impact of R&D on selected horticulture crops. Draw implications for investment allocation and institutional framework for the agricultural R&D system.
Research and Development Budgetary allocation trend – Table 1. By Major Final Output (OPIF; World Bank ; in P millions) MFO 1 Support services20,19921,75818,70214,74820,80336,00633,858 MFO 2 Regulations5122,2572, ,1861,1971,353 MFO 3 Plans and policies2,0761,3821,1033,0591,7672,4692,617 TOTAL22,78725,39722,04918,49623,75639,67237,828
Research and Development Budgetary allocation trend – Table 2. Breakdown of MFO 1 (OPIF; World Bank; in P millions) Production Support Services2,5232,4684,6084,975 Market Development Services Credit Facilitation Services Irrigation Development Services9,98113,1249,04412,552 Other Infra and/or Post harvest Dev't Services 2,8002,0121, Extension Support, Education and Training Services 2,6302,5142,1261,853 Research and Development 1,6861, ,185
Research and Development Investment in agricultural R&D – one of the major drivers of agricultural productivity. Most of the agricultural research and development efforts (funding) come from the government agencies. – Agricultural research as a public good – Stakeholders (workers and farmers) are poor
Research and Development General trends – Table 3. Global public agricultural research-intensity ratios, Expenditures as a % of AgGDP Region/country Developing countries Sub-Saharan Africa China Asia and Pacific Latin America and Caribbean Middle East and North Africa Developed countries Total
Research and development Public-sector agri research intensity ratio, 2002 PHILIPPINES: 0.46 % – Higher than Vietnam [0.17 %], Indonesia [0.22 %], Laos [24%] – Lower than Malaysia [1.92 %] – Higher than the overall average for Asia (2000) : 0.41 % – Lower than the average for developing countries (2000) : 0.53 %
Research and Development Research Intensity Ratio Rice 0.25 Corn 0.05 Sugar 0.5 Coconut 0.3 Fiber Crops Cotton 2.5 Abaca 1 Other fiber crops Vegetables nil Tobacco 1.1 Livestock 0.15 Carabao 3.6 Other livestock 0.02 Fruits Banana nil Other fruits nil Fisheries excl. SEAFDEC 0.12 incl. SEAFDEC 0.35 Forestry 3.5 Source: David (1998) 2012 GVA Shares Banana6.93 Livestock12.79 Poultry7.47
Assessment Method Economic Surplus Approach – Change in economic surplus arises from farm productivity improvement due to innovation (k- shift), which propagates by a diffusion process – Together with research cost, permits calculation of measures of project worth Net present value (NPV) Benefit-cost ratio (BCR) Internal rate of return (IRR)
Assessment method K-shift NPV, BCR, & IRR Unable to get good estimates of k-shift Reverse NPV, BCR, and IRR threshold k-shift – minimum value to justify the amount invested in the research – NPV=0, BCR=1, IRR= discount rate A model named ‘welfare impact simulator for evaluating research’or WISER has been developed to automatically calculate the prospective impact of a new technology generated from fruit and vegetable R&D.
Philippines Horticulture Program Fruits – C1: Analysis of Papaya supply chain constraints – C2: Durian/Jackfruit Phytophthora Integrated Management – C3: Papaya Integrated Crop Management – C4: Improved and Sustainable Mango Value Chain Vegetables – C1: Integrated soil and crop nutrient management – C2: Development of a cost-effective protected cropping system – C3: Management of bacterial wilt and other wilting diseases in Solanaceous crops – C4: Analysis of selected vegetable value chains Fruits and vegetables – C5: Economic impacts of new technologies and policy constraints Research cost: financing by the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) and in-kind contribution by the Philippines.
Assessment method Assumptions to calibrate the diffusion process: High adoption scenario – admax (maximum adoption): 20 % – adop20 (adoption after 20 years) : 15 % Low adoption scenario – admax : 5 % – adop20 : 4 %
Assessment method Table 4. Research cost (over 4 years) Total investment in the Philippines, in AUD$ Philippines in- kind, in AUSD$ TOTAL Durian201,345 18,200219,545 Jackfruit""" Mango430,09156,504486,595
Preliminary results Table 5. Threshold k-shift estimates in percent NPV=0; BCR=1 IRR 0.05IRR 0.15 LOW adoption HIGH adoption LOW adoption HIGH adoption Durian Jackfruit Mango k-shift (%) Pearl millet 18 to 59 Sorghum 12 to 26 Groundnut 15 (Evenson, 2003)
Analysis of the Results Modest levels of k-shift are needed to justify research investment It is expected that the actual k-shifts of the research project would be higher than the k- shift estimates in this study. The computed k-shifts can help the research stakeholders to potential benefit of research to society via farm-level productivity improvement