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2  Importance of strengthening Higher Education systems in Agriculture in Developing countries  Global report of the Inter-Academy Council, 2004  The World Development Report, 2008  The report of the International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology for Development,2008  The G8 summit, 2008

3  Higher Education  Innovative Methods of Content Development  Management and Delivery

4  New collaborative online spaces viz.,  Web 2.0  Open up traditionally closed educational systems with the availability of  Digital network  Improved access to computing

5  An RLO is -an independent unit of learning content -that is designed for reuse -in multiple instructional contexts, -the smallest standalone unit of learning -on a specific topic Polsani, 2003

6  Self-contained and small to focus the learner’s attention.  They avoid duplication, easy to update and cost-effective.  RLOs can be made available in offline mode  RLOs can be combined and used in any number of ways to meet a wide range of learning objectives.

7  An independent and self-standing unit of learning content that is predisposed to reuse in multiple instructional context  RLO is a type of online instruction that provides a digital educational resource  That can be reused, scaled and shared from a central online repository in the support of instruction / learning  Each RLO supports a single learning objective

8  Learning objective  Knowledge / instruction and  Assessment option

9  RLOs can be implemented in a variety of digital modes including  Text entriesImages  IllustrationPhotographs  Power Point slidesFigures  MapsGraphs  SimulationsModels  AudioVideo  flash animationsinteractive tools and their combinations

10  Topical RLOs should be thought of as the smallest possible educational unit  2 - 15 minutes of learning - to accommodate the short attention span of learners  Several RLOs can be brought together in order to create an instructional situation  A sequence of RLOs may form a course to community-based online setting that provides a learning experience.

11  The Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), New Delhi  Funded National Agricultural Innovative Project (NAIP)  Innovations in Technology Mediated Learning : An Institutional Capacity Building in using re- usable learning objects in Agro-Horticulture utilizes this tool for teaching and learning

12  To generate, review and publish approved learning material for use in RLO format by Distance Education institutions for capacity building.  To build a national repository in digital mode on agro-horticulture for use in Distance education aimed at rural learners and to link it with three university level repositories  To asses impact of new methods of combining ODL & ICT on rural livelihoods and on partnerships

13  Indira Gandhi Nation Open University (IGNOU), New Delhi  Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU), Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu  Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University (YCMOU), Nasik, Maharashtra  International Crop Research Institute for Semi Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Hyderabad

14 100 RLOs on each topic  Horticulture Nursery Management  High Value Crops Production  Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in Agro- horticulture  Integrated Nutrient Management (INM) in Agro- horticulture  Post Harvest Value Addition in Agro-horticulture

15  600 RLOs thus created will be uploaded in the specially designed website  NAIP supported Agropedia architecture  This website has been designed in technical collaboration with IIT, Kanpur.

16  All these RLOs will also be translated in to regional languages of  Tamil (Tamil Nadu)  Marathi (Maharashtra) and  Bengali (Tripura) for easy reach of the farmers of that particular state.

17  These learning materials thus created in all the four centres will be compiled to create a national repository  A stock of learning material will be available under open educational resource  The needed information can be browsed at any time by the needy farmer with a personal login ID and password.

18  The content in the form RLO’s becomes an online asset  It allows for closed-group review and publication of expert-derived RLO’s,  Allows sharing of practitioner tips and notes, from learners and faculty located in different geographical locations.


20  Pseudomonas Wilt  Erwinia Rot


22  This disease occurs in scattered plants or groups of plants.  Wilting of terminal leaves, followed in 2-3 days by a sudden and permanent wilt.  Adventitious roots may develop on the main stems.

23 Other Symptoms Browning of vascular region. Later stages browning of cortex near the soil.

24 Bacteria streaming can be seen when a freshly cut stem is suspended in water. Normal stem Affected Stem

25  The pathogen survives in soil for extended periods without a host plant.  It enters roots through wounds, which may be caused by insects, nematodes, and cultivation.  High temperature and high soil moisture favor disease development.

26  Disease can be minimized by exposing soil to sunlight.  Selection of healthy planting material, eradication of infected plants.  Disinfecting cutting knives and providing better drainage.

27  Flower visiting insects are main agents for transmitting the disease and this is a good reason for following the practice of removing the bud from the male axis before the bunch matures. (Cont)…

28  Herbicides, e.g., 2, 4-D and 2, 4, 5-T, can be used to kill infected plants in situ and dieldrin sprayed onto a chopped down mat will prevent insects transmitting the disease to the unaffected plants.

29  This is a minor bacterial disease  Symptoms  It is characterized by a massive soft odorous rot of the centre or a portion of the rhizome.

30  The rot progresses up the pseudostem destroying the growing point and causing internal decay often with vascular discoloration

31  Externally, the symptoms sometimes resemble those of Fusarium wilt.  Yellowing and wilting of the leaves are the characteristic symptoms.

32  Soil drenching with bleaching powder was found beneficial.  Soil and plant drenching with bleaching powder at 2 g/l water at an interval of 10-15 days was found effective in controlling the disease.

33 1. Erwinia rot is otherwise known as a. Soft rot b. Wilt c. Root rot d. Stem rot 2. Browning of vascular system is common in a. Soft rot b. Pseudomonas wilt c. Fusarium wilt d. Root rot 3. Bacterial streaming can be seen a. Bacterial wilt b. Fusarium wilt c. Root rot d. stem rot 4. Bleaching powder is used for the management of a. Erwinia rot b. Bacterial wilt c. Fusarium wilt d. Stem rot 5.Rottng of rhizome is common in a. Rhizome rot b. stem rot c. Fusarium wilt d. Root rot



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