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MACRO-PROPAGATION OF Oxytenanthera abyssinica (A. Rich Munro) From Culm Cuttings.

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Presentation on theme: "MACRO-PROPAGATION OF Oxytenanthera abyssinica (A. Rich Munro) From Culm Cuttings."— Presentation transcript:

1 MACRO-PROPAGATION OF Oxytenanthera abyssinica (A. Rich Munro) From Culm Cuttings

2 By: Eiman E. E. Diab Institute of Environment and Natural Recourses, National Centre for Research, Khartoum Ahmed M. A. Eldoma Faculty of Forestry and Range Science, Sudan University for Science and Technology, Khartoum, Sudan Syadat E. Mohamed Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan

3 Bamboo is a group of the family Poaceae, subfamily Bambusoideae, tribe Bambuseae. Some of its members are giant bamboos, forming by far the largest member of the grass family.PoaceaeBambusoideae There are 91 genera and about 1000 species of bamboos. They are found in diverse climates within the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. They are perennial, fast-growing woody grasses and are capable of producing utilizable annual productionIntroduction

4  In Sudan there are two indigenous bamboos:  Arundinaria alpina found only in the upper reaches of the Imatong Mountains  Oxytenantherea abyssinica found on hill slopes and along Khors in southern region, Nuba Mountains, Jebel Eldair in Kordofan and Ingassana area of Blue Nile State.

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6 Sudan is the largest African country which covers an area of about 2.5 million Km2. It is located between Lat º N and Long º E. Sudan is administratively divided into 25 States. The most salient geographic feature is the River Nile and tributaries, which traverse the country from south to north. The country consists of various climatic zones resulting in different ecological and vegetation zones from north to the south. The climate is controlled by the relationships between the dry continental airflow from the north and the moist airflow from the south and southwest, originating from the Atlantic and Indian oceans These two airflows control the distribution of the rainfall over the various regions of the country. Accordingly, the fall duration and the length of the rainy season gradually increase from north to the south throughout the country, though the effect of local topography can have significant effects (Jebel Marra and Imatong mountains). The average rainfall ranges from 4 mm at Wadi Halfa in the north to over 2000 mm at Gilo in the Imatong Mountains in the south The soils of the country can be classified as 60% sandy, 30% heavy cracking clays and 10% red soils of different types The combination of rainfall and soil texture determines the distribution of vegetation.

7 Sudan-Land Cover Map

8 The total World Forest cover is estimated as 4077 Million hectares in It was reduced to 3953 Million hectares by 2005 (FAO, 2005). The forest area in Africa is estimated at 635 million hectares, equivalent to 21 percent of the total land area, or about 0.7 hectares per person. The net loss of forests remains alarmingly high at an estimate of 4.0 million hectares per annum between 2000 and However, presently the rate of loss is decreasing when compared to the 1990s and now it is lower than previously assessed

9 Plantations of Oxytenantherea abyssinica had been established in Hedaibiate, ElGaziair in the early fifties and Abu Geili Forest and Twala Forest in the nineties. Exotic bamboos were introduced and planted for decorative purposes e. g. Dendrocalamus strictus, Bambusa vulgaris in the botanical garden in Khartoum.

10 Bamboos with their rapid growth and versatile use could participate in alleviation of poverty through income generation. It can be integrated into the farming systems where a few clumps of bamboos could be grown scattered in the farms in some areas in the Sudan. These clumps could meet the needs of the farmer and could augment his income by the sale of its products.

11 Methods of Bamboo Propagation Vegetative Propagation: –The bamboo plant consists of three morphological parts- the aerial part (the culm) and two underground parts (the rhizome and root). A bamboo propagule must develop all three structures. Failure in development of any of these structures leads to failure of a propagule.

12 Due to the scarcity of seeds, bamboo is generally propagated by vegetative methods. These include: Clump division-offset rhizom, Whole culm cutting, Layering, Culm-segment cutting, Branch cutting and Macroproliferation.

13 The problem The vegetation phase of the species takes a long time, flowering and consequently the production of seeds occurs sporadically after a long time estimated as (30-40 years). Moreover the seeds viability span is short, lasting not more than 3 months under normal storage conditions in the Sudan. Also, unlike other bamboos it could not be easily vegetatively propagated by ordinary nursery techniques from culms cuttings. Therefore, vegetative propagation at macro and should to be addressed.

14 Objectives: The objectives of this work were to: To find optimum vegetative methods of propagation of the species at macro scale. The main objective of this investigation was to establish a protocol for a successful propagation of Oxytenanthera abyssinica from culm cuttings at normal nursery conditions. The specific objectives were to investigate the effect of season (Summer and Winter), type of cutting (one and two nodded cuttings), method of planting (horizontal- vertical planting), position on the culm from where cuttings were taken (top, middle and basal part of the culm) and different IBA concentrations on inducing rooting of cuttings

15 Therefore, the main objective of this investigation was to establish a protocol for a successful propagation of Oxytenanthera abyssinica from culm cuttings at normal nursery conditions. The specific objectives were to investigate the effect of season (Summer and Winter), type of cutting (one and two nodded cuttings), method of planting (horizontal-vertical planting), position on the culm from where cuttings were taken (top, middle and basal part of the culm) and different IBA concentrations on inducing rooting of cuttings

16 Treatment applied to cutting for macro vegetative propagation Treatment descriptionTreatments levelTreatment 1- one-nodded cutting.2Type of node 2- two-nodded cutting. 1- top part.3Position of cutting in the culm 2- middle part. 3- basal part. 1- vertical method.2Method of planting 2- horizontal method 4000 ppm4IBA concentration 2000 ppm 1000 ppm 0 ppm Summer and Winter season2Season when the experiment was conducted

17 Culm cuttings were prepared from new culms (less than one-year-old) from clumps of Oxytenanthera abyssinica at Abu Gaili Forest near Sinner (Blue Nile State at latitude 13  36 and longitude 23  36). The new culms were examined morphologically to ascertain the existence of buds, which may grow and form culms. Two types of cuttings were prepared viz. One-nodded cuttings, approximately 25 cm in length and 5 cm in diameter and two-nodded cuttings, approximately 40 cm in length and 5 cm in diameter. The cuttings were defoliated and the axillary buds were left intact. Approximately equal proportions of the internodes were left on both sides of the single-nodded and two nodded cuttings. Cuttings were prepared from the top, middle and basal part of the culms.

18 Plant Material Culm cuttings were prepared from new culms (less than one-year-old) from clumps of Oxytenanthera abyssinica at Abu Gaili Forest near Sinner (Blue Nile State at latitude 13  36 and longitude 23  36). The new culms were examined morphologically to ascertain the existence of buds, which may grow and form culms. Two types of cuttings were prepared viz. One-nodded cuttings, approximately 25 cm in length and 5 cm in diameter and two-nodded cuttings, approximately 40 cm in length and 5 cm in diameter. The cuttings were defoliated and the axillary buds were left intact. Approximately equal proportions of the internodes were left on both sides of the single-nodded and two nodded cuttings. Cuttings were prepared from the top, middle and basal part of the culms. Materials and Methods:

19 Experimental Design and treatments An experiment was performed utilizing a completely randomized design in a factorial setting. Treatments used included IBA concentrations at 4 levels (4000, 2000, 1000 and ppm) x 2 methods of planting (horizontal and vertical) x 2 types of cuttings (one nodded and two nodded cuttings) x 3 positions on the culm from where cuttings were taken (top, middle and basal part). Treatments were replicated ten times. Auxin preparation and mode of application Indole-3-butryic acid (IBA) was prepared to the required concentrations of 4000, 2000, 1000 and 0 ppm as control. The dip method was used throughout and the basal ends of the prepared cuttings were dipped in the prepared IBA solutions, which were put in a plastic tray. The treated cuttings were left for hrs in the solutions at laboratory temperature (24-25  C). They were then planted in a soil medium consisting of a thin layer of silt covered with sand. This mixture was placed on concrete beds of 150x50x30 cm. The beds were covered with plastic sheets laid on a metal frame about cm above the ground to create suitable conditions for rooting and to maintain high relative humidity. Planted cuttings were kept moist by daily watering and were given all necessary care and protection. The experiment was performed twice in summer and winter where the mean maximum temperature was about 40  C and 14  C respectively.

20 Growth Parameters and Data Analysis Data on shoot length, root length, number of sprouted and rooted cuttings were recorded periodically for five months. Analysis of variance was carried out using Statistical Analysis Systems (SAS) and means were separated using Fisher protected L.S.D.

21 Results Table (1): Effect of season on performance of the cuttings of Oxytenanthera abyssinica, after five months in the nursery. SeasonSprouting cuttings % Rooting cuttings % Shoot length (cm) Root length (cm) Root number Summer32.0 b 30.0 b 22.0 b 12.5 b 2.4 b Winter49.2 a 42.0 a 32.0 a 18.1 a 1. a Means followed by different letters are significantly different at P<0.05 using Fisher protected L.S.D.

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23 Plate (1) Successful rooting cuttings of Oxythentherea abysssinica treated with 4000ppm IBA in winter (9- month)

24 Table (2): Effect of position of cuttings in the culm on the performance of cuttings of Oxytenanthera abyssinica in summer and winter, after five months in the nursery Means in the same column followed by different letters, are significantly Position in the culm SeasonSprouting cuttings % Shoot length (cm) Root length (cm)Root number Upper partsSummer17.0 c 14.9 c 0 c Winter24.0 c 17.6 c 0 c Middle partSummer33.8 b 22.9 b 12.0 b 3.4 b Winter35.0 b 24.5 b 15.7 a 4.8 a Basal partSummer38.6 b 28.6 a 13.6 b 4.2 a Winter44.0 a 30.4 a 16.8 a 5.4 a

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26 Table (3): Effect of type of cuttings in the performance of cuttings of Oxytenanthera abyssinica in summer and winter season, after five months in the nursery Type of node SeasonSprouting cuttings % Shoot length (cm) Root length (cm) Root number Single nodeSummer33.0 c 29.3 a 13.7 b 2.7 b Winter38.0 c 31.9 a 15.2 a 2.9 b Double nodeSummer54.0 b 30.1 a 15.2 a 4.2 a Winter68.0 a 33.1 a 16.7 a 5.1 a Means in the same column followed by different letters, are significantly different (P<0.05) using Fisher protected L. S. D

27 Table (4): Effect of IBA concentrations on the performance of cuttings of Oxytenanthera abyssinica after five months in the nursery IBA con. Ppm SeasonSprouting cuttings % Shoot length (cm) Root length (cm) Root number 0Summer22.0 d 16.8 c 0.0 c 0.0 f Winter25.0 c 27.0 b 0.0 c 0.0 d 1000Summer25.9 c 26.0 b 4.2 b 0.5 c Winter28.0 c 27.0 b 6.0 b 1.5 c 2000Summer33.2 b 27.0 b 14.1 a 3.2 b Winter33.9 b 30.0 a 15.7 a 4.0 a 4000Summer38.8 b 31.0 a 16.3 a 4.8 a Winter46.0 a 33.0 a 17.7 a 5.9 a Means in the same column followed by different letters, are significantly different (P<0.05) using Fisher protected L. S. D

28 Plate (2) Successful rooting cuttings of Oxythentherea abysssinica treated with 4000ppm IBA In Winter Season

29 Plate (3) Rooting cuttings, treated with 4000 ppm of IBA in winter 9 month after planting.

30 Effect of method of planting The method of planting vertically or horizontally, produced significant effect on the percentage of sprouting, rooting cuttings, the shoot and root length. The cuttings planted horizontally gave successful propagules whereas the vertically planted ones especially the two nodded cuttings failed to sprout successfully in summer and winter seasons.

31 Conclusion: One year or less old culms are more suitable as explants for cuttings. Winter is the best season for propagation from cuttings where the percentage of rooted-cuttings reached 42% while it reached 30% in summer. Cuttings taken from the basal and middle part of the culm gave a higher rooting percentage 36.8 and 44% respectively than the cuttings taken from the upper part of the culm, which failed to produce roots. Two-noded cuttings gave the highest rooting cuttings, which reached 44.7% while those from one-noded cuttings reached 33.2%. hence it is recommended that 2-noded cuttings be used for propagation followed by one –noded cuttings. Horizontally planted cuttings rooted while those vertically planted failed to root. It is therefore recommended that cuttings be horizontally planted for propagation from cuttings. In winter season cuttings treated with IBA at 4000, 2000, 1000 ppm gave 46, 34.4, 16.5 percentage of rooted cuttings respectively while cuttings treated with no IBA (control) failed to rood. It is recommended to use 4000 ppm followed by 2000 ppm and only 1000 ppm in case of scarcity of IBA.

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