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INTRODUCTION TO IPM & INSECT PESTS INTRODUCTION TO IPM & INSECT PESTS Pam Compton IPM Tech CES/UAF.

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Presentation on theme: "INTRODUCTION TO IPM & INSECT PESTS INTRODUCTION TO IPM & INSECT PESTS Pam Compton IPM Tech CES/UAF."— Presentation transcript:

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2 INTRODUCTION TO IPM & INSECT PESTS INTRODUCTION TO IPM & INSECT PESTS Pam Compton IPM Tech CES/UAF

3 IPM – Integrated Pest Management The use of all available tactics or strategies to The use of all available tactics or strategies to attain an economically acceptable yield or plant attain an economically acceptable yield or plant quality while causing the least disruption to people, pets and the environment.

4 The 6 Steps of IPM 1. Inspect and Investigate 1. Inspect and Investigate 2. Identify and Learn 2. Identify and Learn 3. Monitor 3. Monitor 4. Choose Control Methods 4. Choose Control Methods 5. Evaluate 5. Evaluate 6. Educate 6. Educate

5 1. Inspect & Investigate Locations discovered Locations discovered Conditions Conditions Number observed Number observed When noticed When noticed

6 2. Identify & Learn Id the pest Id the pest life cycle life cycle pest/beneficial pest/beneficial what does it eat what does it eat where does it live where does it live Is it native to Alaska, to South Central? Is it native to Alaska, to South Central?

7 3. Monitor 3. Monitor Trap Trap Check back with client Check back with client Learn which control method works best Learn which control method works best

8 4. Choose Control Methods Habitat Modification Habitat Modification clean clean fix leaks seal holes remove food & shelter Biological Controls Biological Controls encourage beneficals Physical Methods Physical Methodstrapping remove by hand fly swatter pest proof barriers vacuuming strong spray of water Pesticides Pesticides least poisonous pest specific

9 5. Evaluate Check if the pests are still there. Check if the pests are still there. Which control method is working the best. Which control method is working the best. Use a different control if necessary. Use a different control if necessary. 6. Educate Teach others what you have learned. Teach others what you have learned.

10 INSECT PESTS Of The Garden Of The Garden

11 Dave Guinn APHIDS APHIDS Green Peach Aphid, more than 800 plant species host this insect Green Peach Aphid, more than 800 plant species host this insect Appear to over winter in the egg stage, aphids can produce live young continuously over the summer without mating Appear to over winter in the egg stage, aphids can produce live young continuously over the summer without mating

12 P F Compton, UAF/CES Winged mated adults produce the over wintering eggs in the fall Winged mated adults produce the over wintering eggs in the fall Eggs are often laid in a protected site; near a leaf bud or on the bark of trees Eggs are often laid in a protected site; near a leaf bud or on the bark of trees

13 STINKBUG Nymphs go through 5 instars before becoming adults Nymphs go through 5 instars before becoming adults Feed on over 52 different plants, including native and ornamentals Feed on over 52 different plants, including native and ornamentals Overwinter as adults Overwinter as adults

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15 P F Compton, UAF/CES DAMAGE DAMAGE Leaf distortion caused by feeding; feeding can also distort flowers and fruit Leaf distortion caused by feeding; feeding can also distort flowers and fruit Loss of plant vigor Loss of plant vigor Aphids also secrete honeydew on which sooty black mold can grow Aphids also secrete honeydew on which sooty black mold can grow Spread of disease Spread of disease

16 Control Options Use a high PF Compton UAF/CES Use a high PF Compton UAF/CES pressure spray of water pressure spray of water Rub insects off Rub insects off Encourage predators Encourage predators Reflective mulches Reflective mulches Insecticidal soap spray Insecticidal soap spray Horticultural oils Horticultural oils Other registered pesticides Other registered pesticides Ipm ncsu edu Ipm ncsu edu

17 Pam Compton CES/UAF CUTWORMS CUTWORMS Different species of soil- dwelling caterpillars (Noctuidae) Different species of soil- dwelling caterpillars (Noctuidae) Curl into a ‘C’ when disturbed Curl into a ‘C’ when disturbed Usually feed at night, clip plant off at soil level Usually feed at night, clip plant off at soil level Some climb mature plants to feed on leaves Some climb mature plants to feed on leaves

18 Damage Many over winter as eggs that hatch in early spring Many over winter as eggs that hatch in early spring Feed on crops or weeds Feed on crops or weeds Move into the soil to pupate by mid summer Move into the soil to pupate by mid summer Adults emerge in July or August Adults emerge in July or August

19 Control Options Keep the areas surrounding the garden free of sod and weeds Keep the areas surrounding the garden free of sod and weeds Cultivate the soil in the fall Cultivate the soil in the fall Use collars, barriers or screens to keep cutworms from reaching plants Use collars, barriers or screens to keep cutworms from reaching plants Sticky bands can trap climbing cutworms Sticky bands can trap climbing cutworms Insecticides including Bt can be used before serious damage occurs Insecticides including Bt can be used before serious damage occurs

20 Pam Compton CES/UAF MITES MITES Tiny, eight-legged, round-bodied animals that resemble spiders Tiny, eight-legged, round-bodied animals that resemble spiders Both young and adult pierce the plant then feed on the plant juices Both young and adult pierce the plant then feed on the plant juices

21 Pam Compton CES/UAF DAMAGE DAMAGE Feeding result in a mottled pattern and leaf distortion Feeding result in a mottled pattern and leaf distortion Can result in reduced flower and fruit production Can result in reduced flower and fruit production Some mites produce webbing or galls Some mites produce webbing or galls

22 Clover Mites

23 P F Compton, UAF/CES

24 CONTROL OPTIONS If possible use a forceful spray of water to dislodge If possible use a forceful spray of water to dislodge Insecticidal soap if labeled for mites Insecticidal soap if labeled for mites Predator introduction Predator introduction IGR’s (Insect Growth Regulator) IGR’s (Insect Growth Regulator) Miticides Miticides

25 Insect Images Jack T Reed THRIPS THRIPS Small, fast moving, dark-brown insects with feathery wings Small, fast moving, dark-brown insects with feathery wings Deposit eggs in slits made in the leaf Deposit eggs in slits made in the leaf Generally over winter as adults Generally over winter as adults

26 Insect Images-Ronald Smith-Whitney Cranshaw DAMAGE DAMAGE Leaves where feeding has occurred may become silvery-grey with brownish feces left by feeding thrips Leaves where feeding has occurred may become silvery-grey with brownish feces left by feeding thrips Leaves may become distorted; flowers mottled Leaves may become distorted; flowers mottled

27 CONTROL OPTIONS Insecticidal soap, check label for precautions when using on delicate blooms Insecticidal soap, check label for precautions when using on delicate blooms Botanical and synthetic insecticides are also available Botanical and synthetic insecticides are also available

28 Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org The rose tortrix moth is established in Anchorage and has now been introduced to the Mat-Su The rose tortrix moth is established in Anchorage and has now been introduced to the Mat-Su European leaf-roller European leaf-roller Attacks the rose family; wild & cultivated roses, raspberry, cotoneaster, apple and mt ash. Attacks the rose family; wild & cultivated roses, raspberry, cotoneaster, apple and mt ash.

29 P F Compton, UAF/CES

30 DAMAGE Stop local growth by chewing terminal buds below calyx Stop local growth by chewing terminal buds below calyx Damage to blossoms can cause premature drop or malformed fruit Damage to blossoms can cause premature drop or malformed fruit Webbing can interfere with photosynthesis Webbing can interfere with photosynthesis

31 Larch Sawfly

32 Imported Currant Worm

33 Diamond Backed Moth

34 Raspberry Cane Maggot

35 Greenhouse and Houseplant Pests

36 Insect Images-Whitney Cranshaw FUNGUS GNATS FUNGUS GNATS Adults live ~1 week and tend to be a pest due to their flying behavior and numbers Adults live ~1 week and tend to be a pest due to their flying behavior and numbers Eggs are laid in the soil soon after mating Eggs are laid in the soil soon after mating Larvae feed on organic material including plant roots Larvae feed on organic material including plant roots

37 Insect Images-Gerald J Lenhard DAMAGE DAMAGE Plant injury occurs when the larvae feeds on tiny plant roots Plant injury occurs when the larvae feeds on tiny plant roots Seedlings are more at risk to feeding damage Seedlings are more at risk to feeding damage

38 CONTROL OPTIONS Vacuum pests off plants Vacuum pests off plants Sticky traps Sticky traps Introduce beneficial insects Introduce beneficial insects Insecticidal soap, botanical insecticide, or other; listing host plant, pest and the site on the label Insecticidal soap, botanical insecticide, or other; listing host plant, pest and the site on the label Eliminate any easy way in Eliminate any easy way in Alter habitat, reduce moisture Alter habitat, reduce moisture

39 Insect Images-Whitney Cranshaw LEAFMINERS LEAFMINERS Foliage of many plants may be attacked; vegetables, houseplants, and trees Foliage of many plants may be attacked; vegetables, houseplants, and trees Leafminers may be flies, sawflies, or moths Leafminers may be flies, sawflies, or moths Eggs are laid on the surface or inserted into plant tissue Eggs are laid on the surface or inserted into plant tissue

40 (top)Pam Compton, CES/UAF (bottom)Insect Images-John A Weidhass DAMAGE DAMAGE Larvae live and feed between leaf surfaces Larvae live and feed between leaf surfaces Photosynthetic activity is reduced and plant is weakened Photosynthetic activity is reduced and plant is weakened

41 CONTROL OPTIONS Screen or cover susceptible plants when adults are present Screen or cover susceptible plants when adults are present Removal of infested plant leaves will reduce future pest populations Removal of infested plant leaves will reduce future pest populations Systemic insecticides; plant, pest, and site listed on label Systemic insecticides; plant, pest, and site listed on label IGR’s (Insect Growth Regulators) pest specific IGR’s (Insect Growth Regulators) pest specific Secure points of access for pests Secure points of access for pests

42 Insect Images-Whitney Cranshaw//USDA ARS photo unit MEALYBUGS MEALYBUGS The nymph move freely about the plant until they find a spot to settle The nymph move freely about the plant until they find a spot to settle Once they settle production of the waxy covering begins or else will develop into short lived winged males Once they settle production of the waxy covering begins or else will develop into short lived winged males Females will lay hundreds of eggs beneath the waxy covering Females will lay hundreds of eggs beneath the waxy covering

43 Insect Images-William M Ciesla DAMAGE DAMAGE Cousin to the aphid, mealybugs pierce the plant and feed on the sap Cousin to the aphid, mealybugs pierce the plant and feed on the sap The plants vigor and growth is reduced as they feed The plants vigor and growth is reduced as they feed Plants then become more susceptible to other insects and disease Plants then become more susceptible to other insects and disease

44 CONTROL OPTIONS Hand pick Hand pick Shower with high pressure spray (careful with fragile foliage) Shower with high pressure spray (careful with fragile foliage) Stationary insects can be swabbed off with alcohol Stationary insects can be swabbed off with alcohol Introduce beneficial insects Introduce beneficial insects Sticky traps Sticky traps Systemic insecticides, labeled for plant, pest, and site Systemic insecticides, labeled for plant, pest, and site

45 Stevehopkin.co.uk SPRINGTAILS SPRINGTAILS Primarily are decomposers Primarily are decomposers Can be found in rich organic soil Can be found in rich organic soil They have a short life cycle They have a short life cycle

46 DAMAGE DAMAGE Rarely are plants damaged by springtails Rarely are plants damaged by springtails Large populations may damage root hairs of most greenhouse plantings Large populations may damage root hairs of most greenhouse plantings

47 CONTROL OPTIONS Change the organic content of your potting soil Change the organic content of your potting soil Eliminate high moisture areas Eliminate high moisture areas Introduce beneficial insects Introduce beneficial insects Insecticides which list pest, plant, and site Insecticides which list pest, plant, and site

48 (top)Insect Images-David Riley—(down) Central Science Lab. Harpenden Archives WHITEFLIES WHITEFLIES Females lay circular groups of eggs on the undersides of leaves Females lay circular groups of eggs on the undersides of leaves Nymphs resemble the young of mealybugs or scale Nymphs resemble the young of mealybugs or scale The adults emerge after pupation The adults emerge after pupation Broadly oblong wings are covered with a white waxy powder Broadly oblong wings are covered with a white waxy powder

49 Insect Images-David Riley DAMAGE DAMAGE Most greenhouse and houseplants are hosts Most greenhouse and houseplants are hosts Adults can usually be seen resting on the foliage Adults can usually be seen resting on the foliage Nymphs decrease the vigor of the plant by sucking the sap Nymphs decrease the vigor of the plant by sucking the sap

50 CONTROL OPTIONS Hand pick or vacuum visible pests Hand pick or vacuum visible pests Sticky traps Sticky traps Spot kill with an alcohol swab Spot kill with an alcohol swab Introduce and encourage beneficial insects Introduce and encourage beneficial insects Alter plant habitat Alter plant habitat Insecticidal soap, botanical insecticide listing host plant, pest, and site Insecticidal soap, botanical insecticide listing host plant, pest, and site IGR’s IGR’s

51 In and Around Your Home

52 (top) Edward H Holsten, USDA Forest Service, (bottom) Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University, CARPENTER ANTS Among the most efficient wood-destroyers in Alaska Among the most efficient wood-destroyers in Alaska Construct nests in wood Construct nests in wood Winged ants develop in mature nests of >2,000 Winged ants develop in mature nests of >2,000 Important decomposers of decaying trees Important decomposers of decaying trees

53 (top) USDA Forest Service-NW Area Archives, (bottom) R. Werner, USDA Forest Service, DAMAGE DAMAGE Often enter standing trees through a wound Often enter standing trees through a wound Nesting sites; between insulation & subfloor, ceilings, wall voids, supports in crawl places, & heartwood of live trees Nesting sites; between insulation & subfloor, ceilings, wall voids, supports in crawl places, & heartwood of live trees Only need 12% moisture to colonize Only need 12% moisture to colonize

54 Edward H Holsten, USDA Forest Service. Control options Control options Determine location of nest and look for signs of wood damage Determine location of nest and look for signs of wood damage Prune or remove foliage near home Prune or remove foliage near home Avoid storing wet or rotting wood, or firewood, along side structures Avoid storing wet or rotting wood, or firewood, along side structures Remove the nest Remove the nest Use diatomaceous earth or silica aerogel on the exposed nest Use diatomaceous earth or silica aerogel on the exposed nest Boric acid can be used according to label directions Boric acid can be used according to label directions

55 Pam Compton CES/UAF STORED FOOD PESTS Life history varies among species, though many can have several generations a year depending on temperature and food availability Life history varies among species, though many can have several generations a year depending on temperature and food availability Adult and larval stage of stored food beetles infest foods; consuming and often breeding in the material. Adult and larval stage of stored food beetles infest foods; consuming and often breeding in the material.

56 Pam Compton UAF/CES Laura Jesse, Iowa State University DAMAGE DAMAGE A wide range of stored foods can be contaminated: A wide range of stored foods can be contaminated:-grains-flours-nuts-beans-pasta -dried fruit -spices Plus the areas where foods are stored

57 CONTROL OPTIONS Examine foods for pests before storing Examine foods for pests before storing Use airtight containers to keep pests out of foods, or store susceptible foods in the refrigerator or freezer Use airtight containers to keep pests out of foods, or store susceptible foods in the refrigerator or freezer Kill pests in foods by freezing or heating Kill pests in foods by freezing or heating Keep food service and storage areas clean and free of spilled food; use vaccum or stiff brush and sponge Keep food service and storage areas clean and free of spilled food; use vaccum or stiff brush and sponge Monitor for pests with traps Monitor for pests with traps

58 RESOURCES Identifying & Controlling Pests in Alaska, CES, College of Rural Alaska, University of Alaska Fairbanks Identifying & Controlling Pests in Alaska, CES, College of Rural Alaska, University of Alaska Fairbanks

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