Presentation on theme: "Chapter 28 New Zealand Economy. Contents Section I An Introduction An Introduction Section II Primary Industries Primary Industries Section III Minerals."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 28 New Zealand Economy
Contents Section I An Introduction An Introduction Section II Primary Industries Primary Industries Section III Minerals & Energy Industry Minerals & Energy Industry Section IV Secondary Industries Secondary Industries Section V Tertiary Industries Tertiary Industries
Section I An Introduction New Zealand has a market economy with sizeable manufacturing and service sectors complementing a highly efficient export- oriented agriculture sector. New Zealand has a market economy with sizeable manufacturing and service sectors complementing a highly efficient export- oriented agriculture sector.
The country underwent radical economic restructuring In the 1980s and 1990s Over the past 80 years Over the past 20 years A substantial reduction on the share of agriculture in GDP An uneven expansion of the service sector
Over 2002 to 2004 Over 2006Over 2007 CPI inflation increased to 4.0% (June), 3.5% (Sep), 2.6% (Dec) Growth in GDP in the range of 3.5% to 4.5% the annual current account deficit 9.1% of GDP
back A large proportion of the risks and uncertainties concerning the outlook for the New Zealand economy revolve around domestic or New Zealand-specific factors. A large proportion of the risks and uncertainties concerning the outlook for the New Zealand economy revolve around domestic or New Zealand-specific factors.
Section II Primary Industries Primary industries generate much of NZ’ s wealth. Agriculture, horticulture, forestry and fishery account for over 60% of exports. Primary industries generate much of NZ’ s wealth. Agriculture, horticulture, forestry and fishery account for over 60% of exports.
Fishery Forest Agriculture and Horticulture Primary Industries NZ is known as the world’s largest farm, agriculture accounts for 4.6% of GDP, horticulture crops have become increasing important. Dairy, sheep, beef cattle, deer, goats, pigs, poultry, bee-keeping, apple and kiwifruit Heavily forested, a quarter as conservation areas. Radiate pine, Douglas fir Vital to NZ’ s life, a long coastline and EEZ of 3.1million Squid, tuna, green-lipped mussels, mackerel, rock lobster and abalone
Section III Secondary Industries Manufacturing Energy & Minerals Secondary Industries
Manufacturing Make an important contribution to the national economy; The largest sub-sectors are food, beverages and tobacco, machinery and equipment; Building new homes is significant, residential construction is 60%; CER and NAFTA.
Energy and Minerals Has significant natural energy resources, with good reserves of coal, natural gas and oil, extensive geothermal fields; After 1973, oil and gas exploration was increased and energy conservation programs developed and promoted.
Section IV Tertiary Industries Transport & Communication Tourism Trade
By air 17% of exports by value, Auckland Negative aspect: a rapid increase in unemployment 1 Important; 99% of exports; Auckland Shipping Transport 1 No longer the central role; the major haulers of long-distance freight Railway Car The most popular form; 73% of NZers drove to work.
Television Crown- owned TV1 and TV2 Negative aspect: a rapid increase in unemployment 1 A great range of private stations Radio Communication 1 Thriving ICT Telephone >95%; half have mobile phone & access to the internet
Tourism Plays a significant role 4.8% of GDP Gorgeous beaches, spectacular geothermal, volcanic activity World-leading museums, groomed ski slopes The America’s Cup yachting competition, the locally made movie The Lord of the Rings
Exporting: Horticulture: cut flowers, kiwifruit, apples, vegetables, wines The old standbys: wool, butter and cheese The manufacturing: whiteware (fridges and dishwashers), electric fences, newsprint and furniture Importing : meat and dairy products Export destinations: Australia, America, Japan, China, Britain Trade
Exercises I. I.Fill in the blanks with proper words or expressions. II. II.Translate the following terms into Chinese. III. III.Explaining the following in English.
I.Fill in the blanks with proper words or expressions. 1. New Zealand has a ________ economy with sizeable ______________ and service sectors complementing a highly efficient export-oriented ___________ sector. 2. Primary industries generate much of New Zealand’s wealth. ___________, ___________, _______ and _______ account for over 60% of exports. 3. The changing makeup pastoral based production over the past two decades reflects the relative returns of different farming types. ______, _____, __________, _____, goats, pigs poultry, and bee are the most important forms of farming. market market manufacturing manufacturing agricultural agricultural Agriculture Agriculture horticulture horticulture forestry forestry fishery fishery Dairy Dairy sheep sheep beef cattle beef cattle deer deer
4. Grains are primary grown for the domestic market, with ______ and ______ leading. The major fruit grown commercially are ______, _________, grapes and avocados. 5. New Zealand is heavily forested. Indigenous forests cover a quarter of the country, and most are protected as ____________ areas. 6. New Zealand has a long coastline and has an __________________________ (EEZ) of 3.1 million nautical square kilometers supporting a wide variety of inshore fish, some large deep-water fin fish, squid and tuna. wheat wheat barley barley apples apples kiwifruit kiwifruit conversation conversation Exclusive Economic Zone Exclusive Economic Zone
7. The largest sub-sectors in manufacturing were _____, beverages and _______, followed by ___________ and equipment. 8. New Zealand has significant natural energy resources, with good reserves of ____, __________, ___, extensive geothermal fields. 9. A geography and climate in New Zealand have supported substantial _____________ development. 10. Now tourism is the leading industry in the ________ development of New Zealand. tobacco tobacco machinery machinery coal coal natural gas natural gas oil oil hydro-electric hydro-electric sustainable sustainable food food
II. Translate the following terms into Chinese gross domestic product (GDP) 2. 2.consumer price index (CIP) 3. 3.plantation forests 4. 4.Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) 5. 5.Quota Management System 6. 6.renewable resources 7. 7.tertiary industries 国内生产总值 消费者价格指数 配额管理体系 可再生资源 第三产业 种植林 专属经济区
III. Explaining the following in English. 1. Primary Industries The primary sector of the economy involves changing natural resources into primary products. Most products from this sector are considered raw materials for other industries. Major businesses in this sector include agriculture, agribusiness, fishing, forestry and all mining and quarrying industries.
2. Secondary Industries This sector generally takes the output of the primary sector and manufactures finished goods or where they are suitable for use by other businesses, for export, or sale to domestic consumers. This sector is often divided into light industry and heavy industry.
3. Kiwifruit The kiwifruit, often shortened to kiwi in many parts of the world, is the edible berry. It has a fibrous, dull brown-green skin and bright green or golden flesh with rows of tiny, black, edible seeds. The fruit has a soft texture and a unique flavor, and today is a commercial crop in several countries, mainly in Italy, New Zealand and Chile.
4. Tertiary Industries The tertiary sector of the economy (also known as the service sector or the service industry) consists of the "soft" parts of the economy, i.e. activities where people offer their knowledge and time to improve productivity, performance, potential, and sustainability. The basic characteristic of this sector is the production of services instead of end products.
5. Transport Transport or transportation is the movement of people and goods from one location to another. Modes of transport include air, rail, road, water, cable, pipeline, and space. Transport plays an important part in economic growth and globalization, but most types cause air pollution and use large amounts of land.
6. fishery A fishery is an entity engaged in raising and/or harvesting fish. A fishery may involve the capture of wild fish or raising fish through fish farming or aquaculture. Directly or indirectly, the livelihood of over 500 million people in developing countries depends on fisheries and aquaculture.
III. Questions for discussion 1.How agriculture industries in New Zealand are classified? 2.How industries in New Zealand are classified? 3.What are the two agreements signed by New Zealand and Australia to facilitate their economic relationships? 4.What role does tourism play in New Zealand’ s economy? 5.Who are the major trading partners of New Zealand?