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Economies and their Modes of Production
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2002 Economic Cultural Anthropologists n Look cross-culturally at a society’s way of producing food and goods n Gather data and categorize society according to their mode of production (These categories blend and overlap) n Examine how a society’s economic system affects that societies perceptions of “culture” and “nature”
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2002 ECOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY n THE STUDY OF CULTURES AS ADAPTIVE SYSTEMS n CULTURAL AND BIOLOGICAL RESPONSES THAT AFFECT OR ARE AFFECTED BY THE SURVIVAL, REPRODUCTION, HEALTH, AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF HUMAN POPULATIONS.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2002 Two Ways of Viewing Culture: n Culture as an energy-capturing and storage system n Culture as an information-storage system The accumulation of both energy and information within cultures is an extension of basic biological functions.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2002 Culture is the Primary Adaptation of the Human Species…....but not all adaptations are successful. In terms of individuals adaptations are judged by their ability to promote reproduction and survival. In populations adaptations can be judged not simply by reproduction of a species, but the ability of the species to maintain itself at a viable level over time.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2002 Processed and Non-Processed Waste Outputs Per Capita
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2002 Efficiencies and Inequities n The 20 per cent of the world’s people living in the highest income countries are responsible for 86 per cent of total private consumption compared with the poorest 20 per cent, who account for only 1.3 per cent. n The richest fifth account for 53 per cent of carbon dioxide emissions, the poorest fifth, 3 per cent. n A child born in the industrial world adds more to consumption and pollution levels in one lifetime than do 30 to 50 children born in developing countries. n Some 60 per cent of the world's poor live in fragile and highly vulnerable areas – on arid and semi-arid lands, on steep slopes and in forests.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2002 Disparity in Consumption in Representative Nations
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2002 Humans and Ecosystems n ECOSYSTEMS including human systems, tend towards HOMEOSTASIS. They tend to resist change and remain in equilibrium. n SOURCES OF ECOLOGICAL CHANGE: CLIMATIC CHANGES TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE: DIFFUSION, INNOVATION, LOSS SOCIAL CHANGE: ORGANIZATION OR DOMESTIC PATTERNS n MYTH OF THE PRISTINE ECOSYSTEM: Every place where modern humans have dwelt they have influenced the environment. What differs is HOW they influenced it and HOW MUCH
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2002 Modes of Production Foraging Industrialism Agriculture Pastoralism Horticulture
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2002 Summary Foraging Horticulture Pastoralism Agriculture Industrialism Reasons for Production Division of Labor Sustainability Property Relations Resource Use Production for useProduction for profit Family basedClass based Stratified/ privateEgalitarian/collective Intensive/ expandingExtensive/temporary High degreeLow degree
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2002 Hunting and Gathering Economies n Based on using food provided by nature –gathering, fishing, hunting –emerged at least 300,000 years ago in its present form n Maintains balance between resources and lifestyle (or else….) n Today only 250,000 people support themselves using foraging, e.g. the Ju/wasi people of Southern Africa.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2002 Types of Hunter-Gatherers: Foragers n Simple Hunter-Gatherers (Foragers): Tend to have limited storage facilities; have to seek food as the need arises Live in temporary, semi-mobile camps (residential mobility) Have a strong sharing ethic Exhibit limited or no ownership of resources
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2002 Forager Settlement and Land-use System
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2002 Types of Hunter-Gatherers: Collectors n Complex Hunter-Gatherers (Collectors):.May exhibit high population density.Sometimes live in villages (permanent camps) for all or most of the year (logistical mobility) Usually exhibit strong social stratification Typically maintain a weak sharing ethic: interpersonal competition for resources Often exhibit family ownership of resources and resource areas
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2002 Collector Settlement and Logistical Land- use System
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2002 Population Ecology Terms ~ 1 n Carrying Capacity: The maximum population that can be sustained in an area with a particular subsistence system. n Maximum Sustainable Yield : The highest level of production possible in a given area over an extended period of time. Also, the level of production just before the point of diminishing returns is reached. n Point of Diminishing Returns: When additional effort invested in maximizing yield no longer produces proportionate returns.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2002 Population Ecology Terms ~ 2
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2002 Hunter-Gatherer Land Use
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2002 “Man the Hunter” versus “Woman the Gatherer” n Many anthropologists emphasize the role of males as the dominant provider in foraging groups (e.g. Lee 1979) n However most everyday food is gathered by women (Slocum 1975) –75-80% among the Ju/wasi n “Man the Hunter” is an example of male bias in interpretation
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2002 Horticulture n Emerged in the last several thousand years n The cultivation of domesticated crops in gardens using hand tools n Crop yields can be great and support denser populations than foraging n Constrained by time required for fallowing
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2002 Horticulture and People n A family forms the core work group n Children work more in horticultural groups than any other type of economy –caring for siblings –fetching water –hauling fuel n Gender roles clearly defined
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2002 Pastoralism n Pastoralism is an economic system primarily based upon herds of domestic livestock. –Seasonal Transhumance: Regular movement between different ecotones on a seasonal basis. The same routes and pastures are typically used every year. –Nomadic Pastoralism: Constant and non-repetitive movements to areas of good grazing. Very large areas where seasonal variations are less significant or unpredictable.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2002 Pastoralism n Existed in Europe, Africa and Asia n Based on the domestication of animal herds and the use of their products n Provides over 50% of group’s diet –Pastoralists trade with other groups to secure food and goods they can’t produce n Groups move to where there is pasture n Can be highly successful
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2002 Pastoralism and People n Families are the basic unit of production n Little overlap between male and female tasks n Generally men herd; women process the herd’s products; children help in herding n Strong value on mobility n Social equality
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2002 The Fertile Crescent
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2002 Agriculture n Intensive strategy of production –more labor, use of fertilizers, control of water supply, use of animals n Permanent settlements n 3 main types –family farming –plantation agriculture –industrial agriculture
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2002 Basic Agricultural Practices: –Rainfall Agriculture Slash and Burn (Swidden) agriculture Runoff control (Terraces, Wash outlets) Dry field farming –Irrigation Agriculture Malpas (Maya raised-fields) Flooded Terraces/Fields (Rice) Controlled Canal Irrigation
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2002 Main Types of Agriculture Family Farming 1bn people are involved in family farming Family based Clear gender roles Large families More rigid class distinctions Land rights can be bought or sold Plantations Used to grow tea, coffee, rubber Concentrated ownership of land Hired labor Severe inequality Dominant in former colonies Poor social welfare for workers Industrial Capital-intensive Uses machines instead of human labor Used in industrialized countries Uses more energy Little research done outside US
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2002 Agriculture - a good move? “Progressive” - Most Euro-Americans think that agriculture is a major advance in cultural evolution. “Revisionist” - agriculture may be “the worst mistake in the history of the human race”
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2002 Industrialism n The production of goods through mass employment in business and commercial operations n Goods produced satisfy consumer demand n Employment increases in manufacturing and service sectors n Formal and informal sections
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2002 The BIG Questions Revisited n What is the scope of economic anthropology? n What are the characteristics of the five major modes of production? n What are some directions of change in the five modes of production?
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