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Moringa oleifera – an underutilised tree with amazing versatility Newton K. Amaglo Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University.

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Presentation on theme: "Moringa oleifera – an underutilised tree with amazing versatility Newton K. Amaglo Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Moringa oleifera – an underutilised tree with amazing versatility Newton K. Amaglo Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa

2 Family - Moringaceae Genus- Moringa Common names - horseradish tree, drumstick tree, West India Ben Number of species - 14 Most important - Moringa oleifera, M. stenopetala Origin - Sub-Himalayan tracts of the Indian subcontinent Occurrence, cultivation - all over the tropics Growth and Size - fast growing perennial tree, grows to 7-12m height Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa Moringa tree – general information

3 Multiple uses of Moringa Human food Water purification Pharmaceutical products Animal and fish feed Green manure Plant growth hormone Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa

4 Moringa parts and their uses Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa Cooking, cosmetics, and medicinal & Individual uses Moringa parts and their uses Oil Meal Minus Oil SeedsPodsRoots Leaves Stems Twigs Kernel Bark ShellsAnimal feed Water purification -Human consumption -Medicinal uses Fuel Minus coagulants Animal feed Extracted meal Growth factors Dyes tannins, medicinal uses Biogas production Excellent pulp Wood

5 Moringa in Ghana Currently Moringa can be found in every part of the country In Volta region, it is called Yevu-ti (The white man’s tree). It was introduced by the Germans during the second world war. It is being used mainly as live fence. In Ashanti region, it is reported that the royal clan brought it on their return from the Sesheles Island*. it is known by the name “Buid” In the upper west region, It is one of the traditional foods of the Dagatis where it is known as “Onwukowo” (chew and drink water) Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa * Mrs Alice Kunadu Acheampong, 2004 Kumasi.

6 Trials in Nicaragua have shown that it is ideally suited also for more intensive production Traditionally cultivated as a backyard plant It can also be grown as a hedge Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa Methods of Moringa culture

7 Nutrient/ComponentYield (tons/ha/yr) Concentration (% DM) Dry matter126 Protein Sugar Starch Lipid NDF NSP, Ash, Others Source: N. Foidl, personal communication; NSP-non-starch polysaccharides Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa Production of nutrients from intensive M. oleifera cultivation in Nicaragua

8 Moringa – a highly valued food in the tropics

9 Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa Nutritional and energy content of Moringa leaves from three regions (% in dry matter) CP-crude protein, CL-crude lipid, NDF-neutral detergent fibre, ADF-acid detergent fibre, ADL-acid detergent lignin, GE-gross energy (MJ/kg)

10 Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa Y Mineral Composition of M. oleifera leaves from different origins

11 Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa Essential amino acid composition of M. oleifera leaves from different regions (g/16gN) FAO/WHO (1990) reference pattern suggested for pre-school children (2-5 years old); acystine+ methionine; btyrosine+ phenylalanine

12 Intensive moringa leaf productionleaf production Moringa can be grown intensively with yields of up to 650 metric tons of green matter per hectare. This compares very well to other green manure crops such as Lablab beans, which yield up to 110 tons/hectare of green matter in pure stands. The green matter is harvested when plants reach a height of 50cm or more (every days), cut at a distance of 15-20cm above the ground. Although losses of seedlings may be 20-30% in the first year, the vigorous regrowth of the remaining seedlings will produce 3 or 5 new shoots after each cutting. Up to nine harvest can be obtained annually. Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa

13 Young Moringa Shoots about 3 weeks old

14 Moringa Shoots Ready for first Harvest

15 Moringa Shoots Cut at 20cm high

16 India's ancient tradition of ayurveda says the leaves of the Moringa tree prevent 300 diseases. Modern science confirms the basic idea. Scientific research has proven that these humble leaves are in fact a powerhouse of nutritional value. Gram for gram, Moringa leaves contain: Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa Moringa- Nutritional Content

17 More than half of all children’s death in the third world are due to malnutrition interactive effects on disease*. In Ghana malnutrition is one of the leading causes of death among children < 1 to 14 years of age**. Moringa leaves could practically wipe out malnutrition on our planet. Experts agree that the long-term solution to malnutrition is the use of foods rich in the essential nutrients often lacking in people's diets. Modern scientific research is proving that Moringa leaves are one of the richest sources of such nutrients. Even Small amounts of the leaves could protect thousands of People from suffering and death. People in several countries have found that Moringa leaves are quite acceptable to taste, especially when added to common foods. Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa Moringa- Nutritional Content- Cont. * ECHO development nodes 1997 ** MOH report of health and disease analysis task team. Feb 2001

18 M. oleifera leaves have become a recommended food supplement Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa Classical supplement for catch-up growth in malnourished children Moringa leaf powder supplement Whole milk powder – 110g Sugar – 50g Oil – 30g Electrolyte/mineral – 20ml Made up with water to 1000ml Spoonful thrice daily (total 25g) along with millet broth Problem of availability and affordability in poor far flung areas Available and affordable to all, spectacular results, improvement from day 10

19 Leaf powder now recommended in Africa and Asia as a nutritional supplement for –Lactating mothers –Infants and children Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa Moringa – a nutritious vegetable to a “functional food” Photo: Lowell J. Fuglie, Church World Service

20 Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa

21 Moringa shoots as green manure Using moringa as a green manure can significantly enrich agricultural land. In this process, the land is first tilled. Moringa seed is then planted 1-2 cm deep at a spacing of 10x10 cm or less. After 25 days, the seedlings are plowed into the soil to a depth of 15cm. The land is then prepared again for the crop desired. Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa

22 Major secondary compounds in Moringa parts (DM basis) *inverse of wt. of sample in g per ml of assay solution that caused agglutination nd: not detectable Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa luxmail.com

23 Level of two bioactive flavonoids in Moringa leaves and extracts Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa luxmail.com Prof Dr Klaus Becker

24 Comparative evaluation of antioxidant activity of Moringa leaf extracts and synthetic antioxidants Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa luxmail.com Prof Dr Klaus Becker

25 Yield percent of different solvent extracts from Moringa leaves Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa luxmail.com Prof Dr Klaus Becker

26 Content of carotenoids and ascorbic acid in Moringa leaves from different regions (mg / kg DM) Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa luxmail.com Prof Dr Klaus Becker

27 Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa Chemical composition of untreated and treated kernels and shells of M. oleifera (% in DM) Prof Dr Klaus Becker

28 Content of carotenoids and ascorbic acid in Moringa leaves from different regions (mg / kg DM) Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa luxmail.com Prof Dr Klaus Becker

29 Use of Moringa as animal feed Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa luxmail.com

30 * From N. Foidl; Nicaragua, dry season Effect of Moringa forage supplementation on body mass development in cattle* Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa luxmail.com

31 Moringa seed extract (MSE) influences protein digestion by rumen microbes Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa luxmail.com

32 Moringa forage as supplement in fattening diets for pigs * * From N. Foidl; Nicaragua Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa luxmail.com

33 Growth performance of tilapia fed diets containing Moringa leaves Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa luxmail.com

34 Liver retinol (vitamin A) enrichment in tilapia fed Moringa leaves Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa luxmail.com

35 Moringa as Livestock feed Cont. Care must be taken to avoid excessive protein intake. Too much protein in pig feed will increase muscle development at expense of fat production. In cattle feed too much protein can be fatal (from alteration of the nitrogen cycle.) Nutrient value of Moringa leaves can be increased for swine and poultry through addition of an enzyme (phytase) to break down the phytases, leading to increased absorption of the phosphorus found in Moringa. Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa luxmail.com

36 With Moringa feed, milk production was 10liters/day. -Without Moringa feed, milk production was 7liters/day. With Moringa feed, daily weight gain of beef cattle was 1200grams/day. -Without Moringa feed, daily weight gain of cattle was 900 grams/day. The higher birth weight (3-5kg) can be problematic for small cattle. It may be advisable to induce birth 10 days prematurely to avoid problems. Incidence of twin births also increased dramatically with Moringa feed: 3 per 20births as opposed to the usual average of 1:1000. Moringa as Livestock feed Cont. Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa luxmail.com

37 Moringa leaf extract as plant growth hormone The juice from fresh moringa leaves can be used to produce an effective plant growth hormone, increasing yields by 25%-30% for nearly any crop: onions, bell pepper, soya, maize sorghum, coffee tea, chili, melon…increasing yields by 25%-30 One of the active substance is zeatin: a plant hormone from the Cytokinines group This foliar spray should be used in addition to other fertilizers, watering and sound agricultural practices.spray Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa luxmail.com

38 How to make the spray Make an extract by grinding young moringa shoots (not more than 40 days old) together with a bit of water (about one liter per 10kg fresh material). Filter the Solid out of the solution. The solid matter, which contain 12-14% protein, can be used as livestock feed. Dilute the extract with water at a 1:32 ratio and spray directly onto plants. Apply about 25ml per plant (Store in a freezer if extract is not going to be used within five(5) hours). Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa luxmail.com

39 Moringa leaf extract as plant growth hormone Cont. Crop Effect of the use of Crop yield with Crop yield the Moringa hormone without hormone hormone (kg/manzana) (kg/manzana) Peanut (floor runner) Soya bean CEA-CH 86 Corn NB-6 Sorghum H887-V2 Onion (sondeo) Granex Tomato (sondeo) Larger flowers 3,750 2,954 Increased dry matter Greater yield Higher quality nuts Larger flowers ,591 Greater biomass Greater yield Greater yield 6,045 4,454 Greater yield 3,234 2,787 Increased weight of 2,954 2,591 Average bulb Increased flowering - - Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa luxmail.com

40 CropEffect of the use of Crop yield with Crop yield the Moringa hormone without hormone hormone (kg/manzana) (kg/manzana) Santa Clara Cantalope Bell Pepper Yolo Wonder Coffee Sugar Cane Black Bean Dor-364 Fewer losses of Flowers after polinisation (melon)** (melon)** Higher percentage of sugar and minerals Increased dry matter 17,380 11,752 Increased fruit weight Larger grain size 1,682 1,409 Higher quality bean formation (semi-cleaned) (semi-cleaned) Greater number of shoots 82,400 77,320 Per Planting Higher percentage of sugar and minerals Greater yield 1, Moringa leaf extract as plant growth hormone Cont. Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa luxmail.com

41 Immature Pods as Vegetables Immature fruits are eaten as vegetable and has export market value in European markets The pods can also be processed into canned vegetables Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa luxmail.com

42 Moringa seed oil Extraction Seeds yield 38-40% of a non-drying oil, known as Ben Oil, used in arts and lubricating watches and other delicate machinery. Oil is clear, sweet and odourless and never becomes rancid. It is useful as cooking oil, bio-fuel for diesel engines, the manufacture of perfumes and hairdressings. Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa luxmail.com

43 Moringa as Livestock feed Moringa leaves constituting 40-50% of feed, milk yields for dairy cows and daily weight gain for beef cattle increased 30%. Birth weight, averaging 22kg for local Jersey cattle, increased by 3-5kg. The high protein content of moringa leaves must be balanced with other energy food. Cattle feed consisting of 40-50% moringa leaves should be mixed with sugar cane, young elephant grass, sweet (young) sorghum plants, or whatever else is locally available. The maximum protein and fiber content of livestock feed should be : Protein Fiber Lactating cow : 18% 26-30% Beef cow : 12-14% 36% Lactating sow : 16-18% 5-7% Meat pig : 12-14% 5-7% Using moringa leaves as cattle feed (beef and milk), Swine feed and Poultry feed. Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa luxmail.com

44 Use of Moringa as water purifiers in rural tropics Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa luxmail.com

45 Coliform removal by M. oleifera extracts compared to effect of alums on muncipal wastewater Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa luxmail.com

46 Water treatment The milled kernel The milled kernel with oil already extracted Both are effective in treating water Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa luxmail.com

47 Water treatment Cont. The active ingredient (a polyelectrolyte) has been isolated in the laboratory 100kg of moringa kernels will produce about 1kg of (almost pure electrolyte) The seed powder can also be used to harvest algae from waste water The seed powder has been used in large scale community water treatment Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa luxmail.com

48 Water treatment Cont. This is a community water treatment plant in Tanzania where 50% Alum and 50% Moringa seed powder have been used. Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa luxmail.com

49 Water treatment Cont. Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa luxmail.com

50 Multiple uses and future perspectives Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana-West Africa luxmail.com


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