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Principals of Organic Horticulture JCC/Wmbrg Master Gardeners Training Course January 2007 presented by Bill Garlette

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Presentation on theme: "Principals of Organic Horticulture JCC/Wmbrg Master Gardeners Training Course January 2007 presented by Bill Garlette"— Presentation transcript:

1 Principals of Organic Horticulture JCC/Wmbrg Master Gardeners Training Course January 2007 presented by Bill Garlette

2 Just Say No To Garden and Lawn Drugs

3 Principals of Organic Horticulture JCC/Wmbrg Master Gardeners Training Course January 2007 presented by Bill Garlette

4 Outline  Overview  Virginia Tech’s new interdisciplinary offering - Organic Horticulture and Landscape Systems  Soil Biology  Healthy Soil and the Ecology of Organics  Composting and Compost Use  Vermicomposting and Actively Aerated Compost Teas  Disease and Insect Pest Management  Weed Control Without Poison

5 First, Let’s Put It Into Perspective

6 In Perspective

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10 So Just because you can’t see it doesn’t mean it isn’t profoundly important!

11 Remember Soil is at the root of all your plant problems!

12 And Feed the Soil and It’ll Feed the Plants!

13 It’s Alive!!! Just like Plants and Animals; The Soil is Alive! We Have to Treat It the Same As Other Living Things

14 What We Dread  Germs – Disease  Bugs  Weeds

15 The Outcome If we win the war to control Nature, we WILL be on the losing side!

16 Seven Organic Rules 1. A lways use the best adapted varieties for each environment. 2. P lant in the preferred season. 3. B alance the mineral content of the soil. 4. B uild and maintain the soil organic content – humus. 5. D o nothing to harm the beneficial soil life. 6. C onsider troublesome insects and diseases as symptoms of one of the above rules having been violated. 7. B e patient. Mother Nature gives birth, but Father Time controls the cycles - from Lessons in Nature by Malcolm Beck

17 The True Organic Rule “Our task must be to free ourselves by widening our circle of compassion to embrace all living creatures and the whole of nature in its beauty.” Dr. Albert Einstein

18 Principals of Organic Horticulture  We focus on pollution of the:  Atmosphere - Air  Hydrosphere - Water  Biosphere – Flora & Fauna, Us  But not the Lithosphere – The Soil

19 Principals of Organic Horticulture AgriChemistry  The foundation of agriculture chemistry was started by France's Jean Baptiste Boussingault in 1834 with the German scientist Justus von Liebig publishing his famous monograph on agriculture chemistry in  Their belief was that because humus was insoluble in water, it was insignificant to plant nutrition. Additionally, their findings indicated that plants basically needed only N-P-K.

20 Principals of Organic Horticulture  What do we mean by Organic?  No Chemicals  No “–icides”  No Growth Manipulated Organisms (GMO)

21 Principals of Organic Horticulture Figure Out The Fertilizer What’s This Good For?

22 Principals of Organic Horticulture Figure Out The Fertilizer And This?

23 The Questions  Can You Figure Out What Vitamins, Minerals, Nutrients You Should Take For A Week?  Would You Want a Weeks Worth of Meals for Sunday Dinner?

24 Here Are The Basic Plant Needs Carbon (C)Iron (Fe) Hydrogen (H)Boron (B) Oxygen (O)Zinc (Zn) Nitrogen (N)Copper (Cu) Phosphorus (P)Manganese (Mn) Potassium (K)Molybdenum (Mo) Magnesium (Mg)Chlorine (Cl) Calcium (Ca)Cobalt (Co) Sulfur (S) = 17 Basic needs

25 Don’t Forget, Those Are Just The Elementals. Then You Have:  Amino Acids  Humic & Fulvic Acids  Photosynthetic Sugars  Mycorrhizal Fungi  And Lots More Stuff In The Plant & Soil Food Web

26 Principals of Organic Horticulture You May Be Familiar With This Chart Importance of proper pH

27 Principals of Organic Horticulture But This One Tells The Tale!! Importance of Proper Mineral Balance – If One is Out of Balance, It Effects Others in a Detrimental Manner

28 Principals of Organic Horticulture How did plants survive B.C. (Before Chemicals)?

29 The Soil Food Web is comprised of microorganisms that provide nutrients and health to the plants as well as the soil. Principals of Organic Horticulture It’s Alive!!!

30 Principals of Organic Horticulture Function of Soil Organisms

31  Photosynthesizers - Plants, Algae & Bacteria = Capture energy, fix CO2.  Decomposers – Bacteria & Fungi = Break down residue, retain nutrients in their biomass.

32 Principals of Organic Horticulture Function of Soil Organisms  Mutualists - Bacteria & Fungi = Enhance plant growth, fix N2, deliver nutrients.

33 Principals of Organic Horticulture Function of Soil Organisms

34  Pathogens, Parasites & Root- feeders – Bacteria, Fungi, Nematodes, Microanthropods = Promote disease and consume plant roots.

35 Principals of Organic Horticulture Function of Soil Organisms  Bacterial-feeders – Protozoa & Nematodes = Graze – Release plant available nitrogen (NH4+). Control root-feeding and disease causing pests.

36 Principals of Organic Horticulture Function of Soil Organisms  Fungal-Feeders – Nematodes & Microanthropods=Graze – Release plant available nitrogen (NH4+). Control root- feeding and disease causing pests.

37 Principals of Organic Horticulture

38 Principals of Organic Horticulture Function of Soil Organisms  Shredders – Earthworms & Microanthropods = Break down residue and enhance soil structure.

39 Principals of Organic Horticulture Function of Soil Organisms  Higher-Level Predators – Nematode feeding nematodes, larger arthropods, mice, birds, etc. = Control population of lower trophic-levels and improve the soil.

40 Principals of Organic Horticulture Function of Soil Organisms  Bacterially dominant soils: annuals, grasses and vegetables – creates a pH above 7 (alkaline).  Fungal dominant soils: perennials, trees, shrubs – creates a pH below 7 (acid).

41 Principals of Organic Horticulture Function of Soil Organisms Fill a Swimming Pool with Salt = Osmotic Shock

42 Principals of Organic Horticulture Function of Soil Organisms Just Say No To Garden and Lawn Drugs = Osmotic Shock

43 Principals of Organic Horticulture Function of Soil Organisms Soil Soil microbes Plants Herbivores Carnivores Omnivores Everybody Feeds the Soil

44 Principals of Organic Horticulture Function of Soil Organisms If the microbes in the soil are disrupted and the nutrient cycle is out of balance then we have the recipe for Pest, Weeds and Pathogens. If the microbes in the soil are disrupted and the nutrient cycle is out of balance then we have the recipe for Pest, Weeds and Pathogens.

45 Principals of Organic Horticulture Caring For The Soil As A Living System  Three Aspects of Soil Health & Fertility  Physical  Chemical – Organic Chemistry: cations – anions  Biological  Requirements of a Living System  Food  Air  Water  “Shelter” – Soil structure & Conservation  Living Organism - Biota

46 Principals of Organic Horticulture Caring For The Soil As A Living System The Organic Matter Cycle & The Soil Food Web

47 Principals of Organic Horticulture Feeding the Soil a Balanced Diet  Compost  Cover Crops  Organic Mulches  Other Organic Residues  Lime, Other Natural Minerals and Organic Nutrients

48 Questions?

49 Compost Happens

50 Don’t Do This At Home!

51 Do This, Instead

52 Why Compost  Healthier Soil & Plants  More Soil Biology  No Chemistry 501  Less –Icides (Pest, Herb, Fung)  Less Chemical Fertilizers  Less Chemical Stink  Less $$$

53 Why Compost Bottom Line  Cheap  Simple  No Chemicals which Kill the Soil Organisms  Better Plant and Water Quality

54 What is Composting?

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56 What Are The Types Of Composting?

57 Yard Waste (Thermal), Worm, Biosolids & Compost Tea Worm Your Way Into Composting!

58 Compost Can Be Used To:  Add Beneficial Organisms  Add Nutrients  Help Sandy Soil Hold Moisture  Loosen Heavy Clay Soils  Make Potting Soil  Mulch

59 Excellent Compost Materials

60 “GREENIES“ (Nitrogen) Coffee Grounds Cover Crops Seaweed Vegetable scraps Egg shells Fruit Weeds Grass clippings 40% "BROWNIES“ (Carbon) Hay Leaves Straw Nutshells Shredded paper Pine needles Saw dust Garden stalks 60%

61 Other Excellent Sources Of Compost

62 My Friend Flicka

63 Elsie the Cow

64 Bugs Bunny

65 And all the Friends of the Colonel

66 Don’t Use

67 Rin Tin Tin’s Residue

68 Sylvester’s Exhaust

69 Or Little Johnny’s John Quests

70 More Problem Stuff  Disease & insect infested plants  Noxious weeds  Meat scraps  Dairy products  Cooking oils & grease

71 Smaller compost materials increase compost maturity.

72 Yard Waste Compost Bins

73 More of the Same

74 Piled Higher and Deeper

75 Alternate Carbon and Nitrogen Materials

76 Add Soil or Compost

77 Add Water

78 Repeat Layers

79 Turning Speeds Compost

80 Troubleshooting

81 Problem-Solution  Symptom The compost is damp and warm only in the middle.  Problem Compost pile too small.  Solution Collected more material and mix the old ingredients into the new pile.

82 Problem-Solution  Symptom The compost pile is damp and sweet smelling.  Problem Lack of nitrogen source.  Solution Mix in a nitrogen source like fresh grass clippings, fresh manure or another “green” material.

83 Problem-Solution  Symptom The center of the pile is dry.  Problem Not enough water.  Solution Chop course material; add green waste; moisten and turn the pile.

84 Problem-Solution  Symptom The compost has a bad odor.  Problem Too wet and not enough air.  Solution Add dry material and turn the compost.

85 In-The-Garden Composting

86 Sheet Composting

87 Trench Composting

88 "Compostholing"

89 The End Result – Excellent Additives

90 Questions?

91 Worming Your Way Along What is worm composting (vermicomposting) and why do it?

92 Worming Your Way Along Vermicomposting is employing red wigglers, most often, (Eisenia fetida) to process organic matter into worm castings – the richest compost material to use.

93 Worming Your Way Along Location, location, location They feed best at temperatures between 59-77°F  How close do you want the worm bin?  Are you the kind of person who will enjoy visiting?  Will your household separate organics from other waste only if a container for them is right at hand?  Do you prefer a “healthy distance” between the species?

94 Worming Your Way Along Buying or building your worm bin.

95 Worming Your Way Along Setting up the bin and moving in the worms.

96 Worming Your Way Along Setting up the bin and moving in the worms.  Materials Needed to Make an Easy Harvester Worm Bin:  Two 8-10 gallon plastic storage boxes (dark, not see through!) as shown in pictures Cost: about $5 each  Drill (with 1/4" and 1/16" bits) for making drainage & ventilation holes  Newspaper  About one pound of redworms

97 Worming Your Way Along Setting up the bin and moving in the worms. Step 1 Drill about twenty evenly spaced 1/4 inch holes in the bottom of each bin. These holes will provide drainage and allow the worms to crawl into the second bin when you are ready to harvest the castings.

98 Worming Your Way Along Setting up the bin and moving in the worms. Step 2  Drill ventilation holes about 1 – 1 ½ inches apart on each side of the bin  near the top edge using the 1/16 inch bit. Also drill about 30 small holes in the top of one of the lids.

99 Worming Your Way Along Setting up the bin and moving in the worms. Step 3  Prepare bedding for the worms by shredding Newspaper into 1 inch strips. Worms need bedding that is moist but not soggy. Moisten the newspaper by soaking it in water and then squeezing out the excess water. Cover the bottom of the bin with 3-4 inches of moist newspaper, fluffed up. If you have any old leaves or leaf litter that can be added also. Throw in a handful of dirt for "grit" to help the worms digest their food.

100 Worming Your Way Along Setting up the bin and moving in the worms. Step 4  Add your worms to the bedding. One way to gather redworms, is to put out a large piece of wet cardboard on your lawn or garden at night. The redworms live in the top 3 inches of organic material, and like to come up and feast on the wet cardboard! Lift up cardboard to gather the redworms. An earthworm can consume about 1/2 of its weight each day. For example, if your food waste averages 1/2 lb. per day, you will need 1 lb. of worms or a 2:1 ratio. There are roughly 500 worms in one pound. If you start out with less than one pound, don't worry they multiply very quickly. Just adjust the amount that you feed them for your worm population.

101 Worming Your Way Along Setting up the bin and moving in the worms.  Step 5  Cut a piece of cardboard to fit over the bedding, and get it wet. Then cover the bedding with the cardboard. (Worms love cardboard, and it breaks down within months.)

102 Worming Your Way Along Setting up the bin and moving in the worms. Step 6  Place your bin in a well- ventilated area such as a laundry room, garage, balcony, under the kitchen sink, or outside in the shade. Place the bin on top of blocks or bricks or upside down plastic containers to allow for drainage. You can use the lid of the second bin as a tray to catch any moisture that may drain from the bin. This "worm tea" is a great liquid fertilizer.

103 Worming Your Way Along Setting up the bin and moving in the worms. Step 7  Feed your worms slowly at first. As the worms multiply, you can begin to add more food. Gently bury the food in a different section of the bin each week, under the cardboard. The worms will follow the food scraps around the bin. Burying the food scraps will help to keep fruit flies away.  What do worms like to eat? Feed your worms a vegetarian diet. Most things that would normally go down the garbage disposal can go into your worm bin (see the list below). You will notice that some foods will be eaten faster than others. Worms have their preferences just like us.

104 Worming Your Way Along Feeding your little waste managers! Worms LOVE Breads & Grains Cereal Coffee grounds & filter Fruits Tea bags Worms HATE Dairy Products Fats Meat Feces Oils

105 Worming Your Way Along Tips On Good Worm Bin Care These are a few good practices for the new worm bin. If you do these, you need not worry about having any significant problems.  Do not add water to the worm bin unless a large part of the bin material lacks water.  Dig under the bedding now and again, and every few weeks, to peek at the bottom-most material. If even a little bit is becoming waterlogged, that’s a sign that you need to promote more aeration and/or drainage.

106 Worming Your Way Along Tips On Good Worm Bin Care  Smell the worm bin. If there’s any foul odor, think “what did I add or do differently, recently, that could have led to this odor?”  Check to see that the temperature remains reasonably good. With changes in season, and the amount of sun that shines, a worm bin can change temperature significantly. Watch out you don’t cook the worms!  Watch for worm predators if this is an outdoor bin. Moles find worms delicious, as do birds and some dogs! Make sure the bin has a lid (and a secure bottom, if necessary for your location).

107 Worming Your Way Along Troubleshooting the bin Problem Worms are dying or trying to escape Probable Cause/ Solution Too wet - Add more bedding Too dry - Moisten bedding Bedding is used up - Harvest your bin

108 Worming Your Way Along Troubleshooting the bin Problem Bin smells bad Probable Cause/ Solution Not enough air - Leave lid off or drill more ventilation holes Too much food - Do not feed for 1-2 weeks Too wet - Add more bedding

109 Worming Your Way Along Troubleshooting the bin Problem Fruit Flies Probable Cause/ Solution Exposed food - Bury food in bedding

110 Worming Your Way Along Harvesting Worms and Using Castings When to Harvest  Generally, a worm bin will have produced a significant amount of good vermicompost at between two and three months along in the process.  If you wait even longer, like 4-6 months, you’ll have more finished looking vermicompost (it will look more like soil and have more plant-ready nutrients in it).

111 Worming Your Way Along Harvesting Worms and Using Castings Harvesting Methods 1. Dump And Sort  It’s just like it sounds! Dump the entire contents of your worm bin down onto a table or driveway (you may want to protect the surface with a sheet of plastic first.)  Put a light bulb above the table (or use natural light.) Now remove any very fresh-looking bedding, and toss it back into the worm bin for the next go-round.  Then, make many small mounds of vermicompost. Watch and you’ll see the worms move downward, away from light, and bury themselves in the bedding. After a few minutes, you can remove the outer layer of this mound, and put it in your vermicompost bucket. Again the worms will move downward.  Just continue like this until you have many little piles of worms.

112 Worming Your Way Along Harvesting Worms and Using Castings Harvesting Methods 2. Worms Sort Themselves  A very simple method indeed. You move all the vermicompost in the bin over to one side, and add fresh bedding to, and begin feeding on, the opposite side.  Then, just give the worms time to finish up all the nutrition on the first side (give them a couple of months) and wiggle on over to the fresher bedding and food.  The advantage is that it’s really easy; the disadvantage is how long it takes, and that for a period of time, you’re only feeding one half of the bin.

113 Worming Your Way Along Harvesting Worms and Using Castings Harvesting Methods 3. Divide and Dump  This is simplicity itself! Just harvest two-thirds of the worm bin, leaving one-third for the next batch.  Yes, you’ll be harvesting worms with the vermicompost you remove, but that’s ok.  When you feed your plants, these worms brought along will, eventually, turn into extra nutrients. The worms left behind will repopulate the bin in a few months’ time.  Be aware that your worm bin will process less material while the population of worms is diminished. Save The Worms!

114 TEA TIME The Soil Food Web and Compost Tea

115 TEA TIME  Why Use It - Soil Food Web – Adds Beneficials to the leaves and roots of plants.  Where to Use It – Foliar & Soil Drench  Aerobic vs. Anaerobic

116 TEA TIME Types Of Teas  Manure Tea  Compost Extract  Compost Leachate  Actively Aerated Compost Tea (AACT)

117 TEA TIME Components of Actively Aerated Compost Tea:  Soluble Nutrients  Humic substances  Bacteria  Nematodes  Protozoa  Microbial metabolites  Goal = maximum diversity of “good guys”

118 TEA TIME Benefits of Compost Tea  Inoculate rhizosphere (root zone) = soil drench  Inoculate phyllosphere (leaf zone) = foliar spray  Occupy plant surface with beneficial organisms = colonization & competitive exclusion

119 TEA TIME Advantages of AACT  Beneficials use exudates & microbial food source = competition = Enhanced Pathogen Antagonist  Develop Disease Suppressive Soils  Biocontrol = induced resistance and control of existing disease  Soluble nutrients, growth-promoting substances, metabolites

120 TEA TIME “Active” Components in Compost Tea Yeasts: Sporobolomyces, Cryptococcus Bacteria: Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Serratia, Penicillium, etc Fungi: Trichoderma, Gliocladium, etc Key: 1. Microbial Abundance + Biodiversity 2. Components of a healthy soil foodweb 3. Beneficial Bacteria, Nematodes, Fungi and Protozoa

121 TEA TIME Rhizosphere Benefits for Microorganisms Root Excretions 1.Amino acids 2.Organic acids 3.Carbohydrates = Sugars 4.Nucleic acids 5.Growth factors 6.Sloughed-off tissue Key: Food + Energy for Microbes

122 TEA TIME Compost Teas as a Natural “Fungal Deterrent” Helps Prevent:  Gray mold – Botrytis cinerea  Downy & Powdery mildew – Plasmopora viticola, Uninula necator  Apple scab – Venturia conidia  Late blight of potato and tomato – Phytophthora infestans

123 TEA TIME “Brewing” a Compost Tea Bacterial Tea = Foliar Spray (Good for Annuals and Veggies) Bacterial Compost Simple Sugars = Molasses, etc Kelp Plant extract (yucca, nettle, comfrey) Fungal Tea = Soil Drench (Good for Perennials, Shrubs and Trees) Fungal Compost Humic &/or Fulvic Acids Kelp Yucca Extract

124 TEA TIME Compost tea Production Methods Bucket-Fermentation Method: [aerobic + anaerobic]  Compost in burlap sack immersed in water, compost “extract’ vs. compost “tea” Bucket-Bubbler Method: [aerated = aerobic]  Small-scale buckets, aquarium air bubble Trough Method:  Farm-size tanks, sump pumps and trickle lines Commercial Brewers:  Small to large scale  Tank, pump, aeration, leachate sock or basket

125 TEA TIME Example of Compost Tea Recipe Initial Recipe: 100 gallons of dechlorinated water 10 gallons of compost (worm or humus) Add: 1 pound cold pressed kelp powder 1 pound fish powder 1 gallon black strap molasses 1 gallon barley malt Fulvic and Humic acids as desired

126 TEA TIME Compost Tea Application Foliar:  70% leaf Coverage  5 gallons per acre Seed Treatments:  Mist or soak seeds prior to planting Soil Drench  Apply at transplant and seedling stages  Apply to base of full grown plants

127 TEA TIME Resources on Compost Tea  The Compost Tea Brewing Manual (4 th edition) Elaine Ingham, Soil Foodweb, Inc  Compost Teas for Plant Disease Control Steve Diver, ATTRAwww.attra.org/attra- pub/comptea.htmlwww.attra.org/attra- pub/comptea.html  Compost Tea Industry Association  International Compost Tea Council

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139 Questions?

140 Principals of Organic Horticulture BioIntensive IPM Pest and Weed Control Without Poisons

141 Principals of Organic Horticulture Beneficials A Quick Review of Basic IPM 1. Recognize the problem 2. Identify the pest or pests and determine whether a control is warranted for each condition AND identify any Natural Enemies present 3. Determine your pest control goal(s) 4. Learn what control tactics are available 5. Evaluate the benefits and risks of each tactic or combination of tactics 6. Choose the strategy that will be most environmentally effective 7. If you use chemical controls, follow the label directions for use and storage of pesticide.....the label is the law

142 Principals of Organic Horticulture Beneficials Basic BioIntensive IPM 1. Physical 2. Cultural 3. Mechanical 4. Biological 5. Chemical – Plant & Organic Extracts

143 Host Resistance The ability of a plant or animal to resist an attack by a pest Cultural Altering the environment, the condition of the host plant or animal or the behavior of the pest to prevent or suppress an infection. This is during the growth period of a plant. Mechanical Removal of a pest from the host through the use of physical controls, traps, devices, and other objects. Biological Use of natural enemies, parasites, predators, and pathogens. Chemical – Plant & Organic – Not Synthetics To destroy pests, control their activities or prevent them from causing damage. Principals of Organic Horticulture Beneficials Basic BioIntensive IPM

144 Principals of Organic Horticulture Beneficials If You Can’t Say It Don’t Spray It

145 Principals of Organic Horticulture Beneficials Quiz Time Again

146 Principals of Organic Horticulture Beneficials What’s This Used For? * N-nitrosodiumethylamine And This? * trichloroallyidiisopropylthiolcarbamate

147 Principals of Organic Horticulture Beneficials  Insects  Birds  Plants  Plants That Attract Beneficial Insects  Plant Extracts

148 Principals of Organic Horticulture Beneficial Insects Everyone recognizes the familiar Ladybug, or ladybird beetle. Many species have an enormous appetite for aphids--one of our most common plant pests. Others prefer scale insects and mites and are very effective in reducing infestations.

149 Principals of Organic Horticulture Beneficial Insects Ladybug larvae are equally relentless predators. Their colorful, but ferocious appearance often causes unknowing gardeners to assume that they must be harmful. Nothing could be further from the truth.

150 Principals of Organic Horticulture Beneficial Insects The Praying Mantis is another widely-recognized insect predator. Nymphs and adults alike lie in wait for an unlucky insect which strays too close, then strike out to grab it with their modified front legs.

151 Principals of Organic Horticulture Beneficial Insects Ambush bugs use the same lie-in-wait tactic. Notice that their front legs are also enlarged and modified. The bright yellow colors of this species camouflage them in their favorite hideout--goldenrod flower.

152 Principals of Organic Horticulture Beneficial Insects The Lacewing Larvae are miniature monsters when viewed at close range. They are deadly enemies of small caterpillars, aphids, and other soft-bodied insects.

153 Principals of Organic Horticulture Beneficial Insects The lowly Ground and Rove beetles, so common under logs and debris, is another friend of man. Both larvae and adults are predaceous and feed on a wide variety of insects.

154 Principals of Organic Horticulture Beneficial Insects Less common, but still important, Robber flies are deadly enemies of grasshoppers, wasps, and other flies which they capture on the wing. Some of their prey are as large or larger than they are.

155 Principals of Organic Horticulture Beneficial Insects Tachinid flies are parasites of other insects. This fly has laid its small white eggs just above the legs of the caterpillar in front of it. Upon hatching, the fly maggots will burrow through their hosts skin and feed on its internal organs. The caterpillar will die just as the larvae emerge and complete their development.

156 Principals of Organic Horticulture Beneficial Insects In addition to these flies, many Small Wasps are important parasites of other insects. Adult parasites range in size from very small. Most range in size from 2 to 15 mm. Larvae of most parasites develop inside the bodies of their prey, but some feed externally or pupate outside the host's body. These parasites are important in suppressing populations of many insects. They are important for control of loopers, cutworms, and aphids.

157 Principals of Organic Horticulture Beneficial Insects Tiphia Wasps are important parasites of Japanese Beetles. Adult parasites range in size from very small. Larvae of most parasites develop inside the bodies of their prey, but some feed externally or pupate outside the host's body.

158 Principals of Organic Horticulture Beneficial Insects Predaceous Stinkbugs Three predaceous species. This stinkbug is shown feeding on a caterpillar.

159 Principals of Organic Horticulture Beneficial Insects MINUTE PIRATE BUGS Adults are oval shaped, about 3 mm long, very flat, and marked conspicuously with black and white. Nymphs are soft-bodied, yellow or amber colored. Pirate bug adults and nymphs are very active predators and may be found on all above ground parts of plants. Active stages feed by sucking the body fluids from aphids, spider mites, and immature stages of many small insects.

160 Principals of Organic Horticulture Beneficial Insects Predator mites control spider mites as well as other pest mites.

161 Principals of Organic Horticulture Beneficial Insects Damselflies Feed on aquatic insects like mosquitoes, and midges. Dragon Flies or Mosquito Hawks Feed on aquatic insects and mosquitoes

162 Principals of Organic Horticulture Beneficial Plants that Attract Beneficial Insects There is a technique called Farmscaping. Farmers plant a patch of plants that attract beneficial insects at the end of crop rows. We can use this same principle – Gardenscaping. One bed or border that has exclusively plants that beckon the good guys. That way we know for certain that a majority of the bugs on those plants are ‘our buddies.’

163 Principals of Organic Horticulture Beneficial Plants that Attract Beneficial Insects Achillea filipendulina - Fern- leaf yarrow Anethum graveolens - Dill Angelica gigas - Angelica Anthemis tinctoria - Golden marguerite Atriplex canescens - Four- wing saltbush Callirhoe involucrata - Purple poppy mallow Carum Carvi - Caraway Coriandrum sativum - Coriander Cosmos bipinnatus - Cosmos white sensation Daucus Carota - Queen Anne's lace Foeniculum vulgare - Fennel Helianthus maximilianii - Prairie sunflower Tanacetum vulgare - Tansy Taraxacum officinale - Dandelion Plants that attract lacewings:

164 Principals of Organic Horticulture Beneficial Plants that Attract Beneficial Insects Achillea filipendulina - Fern-leaf yarrow Achillea millefolium- Common yarrow Ajuga reptans - Carpet bugleweed Alyssum saxatilis - Basket of Gold Anethum graveolens - Dill Anthemis tinctoria - Golden marguerite Asclepias tuberosa - Butterfly weed Atriplex canescens - Four-wing saltbush Coriandrum sativum - Coriander Daucus Carota - Queen Anne's lace Fagopyrum esculentum - Buckwheat Foeniculum vulgare - Fennel Helianthus maximilianii - Prairie sunflower Penstemon strictus - Rocky Mt. penstemon Potentilla recta 'warrenii’ - Sulfur cinquefoil Potentilla villosa - Alpine cinquefoil Tagetes tenuifolia Marigold - lemon gem Tanacetum vulgare - Tansy Taraxacum officinale - Dandelion Veronica spicata - Spike speedwell Vicia villosa - Hairy vetch Plants that attract ladybugs:

165 Principals of Organic Horticulture Beneficial Plants that Attract Beneficial Insects Allium tanguticum - Lavender globe lily Alyssum saxatilis - Basket of Gold Aster alpinus - Dwarf alpine aster Astrantia major - Masterwort Callirhoe involucrata - Purple poppy mallow Chrysanthemum parthenium - Feverfew Lavandula angustifolia - English lavender Lobelia erinus - Edging lobelia Melissa officinalis - Lemon balm Mentha pulegium - Pennyroyal Mentha spicata - Spearmint Petroselinum crispum - Parsley Potentilla recta 'warrenii‘ - Sulfur cinquefoil Rudbeckia fulgida - Gloriosa daisy Sedum kamtschaticum - Orange stonecrop Sedum spurium & album - Stonecrops Thymus serpylum coccineus - Crimson thyme Zinnia elegans – Zinnia (liliput ) Plants that attract Tachinid Flies, Hoverflies Minute Pirate Bugs and Parasitic Mini-Wasps :

166 Principals of Organic Horticulture Beneficial Plants Landscape Examples of Gardenscaping

167 Principals of Organic Horticulture Beneficial Plants Landscape Examples of Gardenscaping

168 Principals of Organic Horticulture Beneficial Plants Landscape Examples of Gardenscaping

169 Principals of Organic Horticulture Beneficial Plants Landscape Examples of Gardenscaping

170 Principals of Organic Horticulture Beneficial Birds Purple Martin: Aerial feeders that forage over land and water, purple martins eat a variety of winged insects. These swallows range across the eastern half of the United States and parts of the Pacific Coast and Southwest. West of the Rockies, purple martins often nest in tree cavities and building crevices, while in the East they typically nest with as many as 30 pairs in hotel-like boxes or hanging, hollow gourds. The migrants often use the same nesting site each year. In addition to providing nest boxes in the East, attract the birds with ponds and wetland areas.

171 Principals of Organic Horticulture Beneficial Birds Red-Eyed Vireo: Until recent population declines, red-eyed vireos were one of the most common woodland birds in North America. These migrants forage in trees, feeding mainly on crawling insects--especially caterpillars--but also on other invertebrates and berries. They range from the upper Northwest to the East Coast, nesting in deciduous shade trees. Plant Virginia creeper, spicebush, elderberry, blackberry and dogwood to supplement insect diet.

172 Principals of Organic Horticulture Beneficial Birds Chipping Sparrow: Well-adapted to various landscapes, chipping sparrows are common throughout backyards in most of North America, except for areas of Texas and Oklahoma. They eat insects and seeds from the ground, shrubs and trees. These common birds tend to nest in evergreens, making nests out of grasses, weeds, roots and hair. Attract them with pines, spruce, arborvitae and yew.

173 Principals of Organic Horticulture Beneficial Birds Downy Woodpecker: Smaller than all other North American woodpeckers, downy woodpeckers readily visit backyards throughout the United States, excluding some areas in the Southwest. Their diet consists mainly of insects, though they also feed on sap, berries and seeds. The birds excavate nesting sites in dead trees and stumps, which are later used by other birds. They prefer deciduous trees such as aspen and willow, and may eat the berries of dogwood, mountain ash, serviceberry, Virginia creeper and poison ivy.

174 Principals of Organic Horticulture Beneficial Birds Yellow Warbler: Known for their sweet songs, yellow warblers eat a diet that is about 60 percent caterpillars. They also eat moths, mosquitoes, beetles and some berries. Widely distributed throughout North America, yellow warblers range from Alaska to the majority of the lower 48 states, except for areas of Texas, Louisiana, Alabama and Florida. They nest in small trees and shrubs and often prefer willow. Plant berry-producing plants native to your area.

175 Principals of Organic Horticulture Beneficial Birds Eastern Bluebird: With their numbers increasing due to nest-box projects along "bluebird trails," eastern bluebirds occupy semi-open areas east of the Rockies. They eat a variety of insects, other invertebrates and berries. Eastern bluebirds nest in tree cavities, old woodpecker holes and nest boxes. Plant elderberry, hackberry, dogwood, holly and Redcedar to supplement their diet.

176 Principals of Organic Horticulture Beneficial Birds Baltimore Oriole: Colorful migrants that readily visit backyards, Baltimore orioles eat insects, fruit and nectar. The songbirds range from the central Midwest to the Northeast and nest in hanging pouches in deciduous trees. Plant blackberry, serviceberry and cherry for food, as well as elm, sycamore, tupelo and other shade trees as nesting spots.

177 Principals of Organic Horticulture Beneficial Birds House Wren: Regular backyard visitors, house wrens have diets that consist almost exclusively of insects and spiders. Not very fussy about sites, these birds may nest in nest boxes, mailboxes, building crevices--even in pockets of hanging laundry. House wrens range throughout most of the lower 48 states during parts of the year. Include low-lying shrubs (such as American beautyberry) or brush piles in your yard--sources for cover, nesting materials and food.

178 Principals of Organic Horticulture Beneficial Birds "Birds That Eat Japanese Beetles" Purple Grackle, European Starting, Cardinal, Meadowlark, Catbird, English Sparrow and Robin Grackle, Starling and Crow Wood Thrush Louise F. A. Tanger Brown Thrasher Red-headed WoodpeckerBlue Jay Scarlet Tanager Mockingbird "Birds That Eat Japanese Beetles" --Although the Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica) has for some years been one of the East's worst summer insect pests, the only list of its bird enemies that I have been able to find is that of Hadley and Hawley (U.S. Dept. Agric., Circ. 332:19, 1934), who term the Purple Grackle, European Starting, Cardinal, Meadowlark, Catbird, English Sparrow and Robin "some of the more important" feeders on adult beetles, and credit the Grackle, Starling and Crow with feeding on larvae. I have already (Wils. Bull., 55: 79, 1943) mentioned the Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) and Louise F. A. Tanger (Bull. Lane. Co., Pa., Bird Club, No. 7: 5-6, 1945, miracog.) mentions the Brown Thrasher (Toxostomar ufum) as feeding on adults. Observations in Baltimore in 1945 and 1946 enable me to add the Red-headed Woodpecker (Melanerpese ythrocephalus) Blue Jay (Cyanocittac ristata), Kingbird(Tyrannus tyrannus), Scarlet Tanager (Piranga olAyacesa) and Mockingbird (Mimus polyglottost)o the roll of feeders on adult beetles. Of these, the Red-headed Woodpecker has been the heaviest feeder; a few of the birds visited a badly infested elm many times a day during more than a week that it was watched, and single birds captured beetles at rates as high as 12 in 10 minutes. As for the other species, I have from two to a number of observations for all but the Mockingbird, which I have only once seen eating beetles"

179 Principals of Organic Horticulture Beneficial Birds These birds, of course, are not alone in consuming backyard pests. Many other species--such as the northern cardinal and black-capped chickadee--eat insects or feed them to their young during the summer. Yet as summer winds down, your efforts to attract birds shouldn't come to a halt. The natural foods you provide in your yard throughout the year will encourage these birds to visit again. As a result, the birds may return and combat a new generation of insects the next year.

180 Basic BioIntensive IPM Principals of Organic Horticulture Beneficials Basic BioIntensive IPM  Physical  Cultural  Mechanical  Biological  Natural Control  Applied Control  BioPesticides  Microbial Pesticides  Plant Pesticides  BioChemical Pesticides

181 BioIntensive IPM Biorational Pesticides  Although use of this term is relatively common, there is no legally accepted definition.  Biorational pesticides are generally considered to be derived from naturally occurring compounds or are formulations of microorganisms.  Biorationals have a narrow target range and are environmentally benign.  Formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis, commonly known as Bt, are perhaps the best known biorational pesticide.

182 BioIntensive IPM Particle film barriers A relatively new technology, particle film barriers are currently available under the tradename Surround WP Crop Protectant which is a kaolin clay. Diatomaceous Earth (DE) is a standard product used as a barrier.

183 Principals of Organic Horticulture Beneficial Plants TRUE LAVENDER Lavandula The most fragrant lavender. Beautiful lavender flowers on long stems and narrow green leaves. When planted in the garden, it will deter pests with its fragrance. When dried and placed in closets and drawers with clothes, it will deter moths and lend its wonderful fragrance to the clothes.

184 Principals of Organic Horticulture Beneficial Plants PYRETHRUM PLANT - Pyrethrum cocconeia A beautiful daisy that is hardy and blooms throughout the spring and summer. It’s flowerhead is used to make probably the best natural pesticide available.

185 Principals of Organic Horticulture Beneficial Plants Garlic There are several types of garlic. Ornamental garlic is prized by flower arrangers for twisting stalks and large flower heads. Garlic has other uses in the garden. It is considered a companion plant to cabbage, eggplant, tomatoes, and lettuce, since it controls aphids. It may inhibit the growth of peas and beans growing nearby. Planted around fruit trees, it controls leaf curl and discourages borers. Controlling aphids, as well as deterring Japanese beetles, makes it a good companion plant for roses. I would also try the wonderful ornamental garlic around the roses.

186 Botanical Pesticides BioIntensive IPM Botanical Pesticides  Botanical pesticides are prepared in various ways. They can be as simple as pureed plant leaves, extracts of plant parts, or chemicals purified from plants. Pyrethrum, neem formulations, and rotenone are examples of botanicals.

187 Botanical Pesticides BioIntensive IPM Botanical Pesticides  Some botanicals are broad-spectrum pesticides.  Others, like ryania, are very specific.  Botanicals are generally less harmful in the environment than synthetic pesticides because they degrade quickly, but they can be just as deadly to beneficials as synthetic pesticides.  The manufacture of botanicals generally results in fewer toxic by-products.

188 Principals of Organic Horticulture Beneficial Plant Extracts  Neem Tree Extracts and Neem Oil  Only effects insects that feed on plants treated with Neem.  Insect Growth Regulator (IGR) – Disrupts the larval and instar stages.  Interferes with insect reproductive systems.  Outright kills some insects.  Fungal Deterrent

189 Principals of Organic Horticulture Beneficials  This is just the beginning of good stuff out there. The ‘To Be Continued’ includes:  Beneficial Bacteria, Fungus and Nematodes  Essential Oil Extracts  Trap Crops  Trap Ravines  And Many More In The Gaia Brigade

190 Principals of Organic Horticulture Those Wild and Wacky Weeds How to Purge Them Without Poisons

191 Principals of Organic Horticulture Those Wild and Wacky Weeds How to Purge Them without Poisons Where Do Weeds Come From? Who Discovered Weeds?

192 Principals of Organic Horticulture Those Wild and Wacky Weeds How to Purge Them without Poisons The Scientists and Grass Seed Salesmen

193 Principals of Organic Horticulture Those Wild and Wacky Weeds How to Purge Them without Poisons What’s The Major Cause of Weeds?

194 Principals of Organic Horticulture Those Wild and Wacky Weeds How to Purge Them without Poisons The Home Owner

195 Principals of Organic Horticulture Those Wild and Wacky Weeds How to Purge Them without Poisons The Causes  Disturbing the Soil  Too Much Fertilizer (Mainly N)  Too Much Watering  Too Much Compaction  Too Much Bare Soil = Mulch  The Right Soil Conditions For the Weeds  Too Wet  Too Dry  Something’s Out of Balance in the Soil = C:N-P-K-Mn-Ca- O2-CO2  Upsetting the Soil Biology/Foodweb = Chemical Interference  And, of course, Cutting the Turf Too Short

196 Principals of Organic Horticulture Those Wild and Wacky Weeds How to Purge Them without Poisons  Too Short Mower settings (Less Than 2 ½”- 3”)  Not Enough Organic Matter Return (Green Manure/Grass Clippings or Compost)

197 Principals of Organic Horticulture Those Wild and Wacky Weeds How to Purge Them without Poisons Solutions  Make a Weed Map – Only Treat Where You Get Weeds  Soil Test = Balance The Soil  Organic Content – Compost  Avoid All Chemicals  Proper Height of Mower

198 Principals of Organic Horticulture Those Wild and Wacky Weeds How to Purge Them without Poisons Alternative Solutions  Corn Gluten Meal as pre-emergent deterrent but remember, this is a source of Nitrogen (N)  Weed Flamer  Vinegar (vegetable base) and Vinegar Based Weed Products for Spot Treatment  Boiling Water  Soil Balance – biologically and nutrients

199 Principals of Organic Horticulture Organic Mulches – Why Use It?  Conserve Moisture  Suppress Annual Weeds  Moderate Soil Temperatures  Protect the Soil from Compaction  Feed the Soil Life and Modify Nutrient Levels  Harbor Insects  Protect Plants from WeedEaterisium

200 Principals of Organic Horticulture Organic Mulches - Types  Hay – Straw  Pine Bark – Shredded & Nuggets  Pine Needles  Wood Chips  Crushed Oyster or Crab Shells  Grass – Mulching Mower Cool Season Fescue  Leaf  Rice Hulls and other Grain Hulls if available  Rock

201 Principals of Organic Horticulture Lime, Other Natural Minerals and Organic Nutrients The “vitamins” in a soil’s “diet.”  Aragonite - Naturally mined, volcanic mineral with over 66 minerals and trace elements  Lime  Elemental Sulphur  Rock Phosphate (0-3-0)  Colloidal Phosphate (0-3-0)  Greensand – Ocean-deposit iron-potassium silicate  Gypsum – Calcium sulfate  Vermiculite – Lightweight mineral  Perlite – Specially processed volcanic material  Humates – Mineralized and stabilized decomposed prehistoric plant and animal matter

202 Questions?

203 A Rind Is A Terrible Thing To Waste

204 Principals of Organic Horticulture JCC/Wmbrg Master Gardeners Training Course January 2007 presented by Bill Garlette

205 Principals of Organic Horticulture Beneficial Plants

206

207 KENTUCKY COFFEE TREE Gymnocladus Dioica A large shade tree with long leaves that are pinkish in spring, green in summer and yellow in fall. The seeds can be roasted and eaten like nuts or made into a coffee substitute. The bruised foliage when sprinkled with sweetened water will attract and kill flies.

208 Principals of Organic Horticulture Beneficial Plants Allelopathy - Allelopathic BLACK LOCUST, FALSE ACACIA Robina Beautiful ornamental loaded with white fragrant flowers. An excellent shade tree with acacia type foliage. The fragrant flowers can be smelled for hundreds of ft. in spring. The bruised foliage mixed with sugar will attract and kill flies.

209 Principals of Organic Horticulture Beneficial Plants CHINABERRY TREE Melia Azedarach A handsome and dense tree. The profuse berries are used to make necklaces and insecticides. Also called Lilac Tree, Pride of India and Bead Tree. To make flea repellent for lawns, mix 1 tablespoon of dry, powdered berries with one teaspoon of dishwashing detergent to a gallon of water and spray on lawns with a sprayer. This will also repel flying insects as well.

210 Principals of Organic Horticulture Beneficial Plants OSAGE ORANGE Maclura A fast growing shrub often grown as a hedge. Pretty foliage with greenish flowers. Good as a background or border plant. The crushed fruits of this plant are said to attract and kill cockroaches.


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