Presentation on theme: "Basics of key financial terms"— Presentation transcript:
1Basics of key financial terms …learn the key financial terms
2Review of Basic TermsAsset/liability: An asset is an economic resource that a company owns. A liability is a resource that the company owes.Book value/market value: Book value is the amount of an asset or liability shown on the companies’ official financial statements based on the historical, or original, cost. Market value is the current value of the asset or liability. In most cases, book value does not equal market value.Capital goods: These are machines and tools used to produce other goods.
3Review of basic terms (Cont’d) Depreciation/amortization: a system that spreads the cost of a tangible asset, such as machinery, over the useful life of the asset. Amortization is a system that spreads the cost of an intangible asset, such as a patent, over the useful life of the asset.Fiscal year: A company’s financial reporting year. In most cases the fiscal year is not the same as the calendar year.Profit margin: This is profit—what the company’s owners keep after paying all the bills—a percentage of sales or revenues.Receivables/payables: Receivables are money owed to the company. Payables are money the company owes to others.Revenue/expenses: Revenue is income that flows into a company. Revenue includes sales, interest, and rents. Expenses are costs that are matched to a specific time period.
5This will be the case after every single transaction Accounting EquationOwner’s EquityAssetsLiabilitiesThis will be the case after every single transaction
6We receive revenue for doing scans What is an Asset?Something we own or use that should generate income.It’s an asset!We bought itWe receive revenue for doing scans
7What is a liability?Something we owe because of something we did and we are going to have to pay.It’s a liabilityOwe money as we bought on creditPurchase nurses uniforms on creditWe are going to pay
8What is Owner’s Equity?The residual interest in the assets of the entity after deducting all its liabilities.Owner’s EquityAssetsLiabilitiesIs increased by: Revenue and capital contributionsIs decreased by: Expenses and drawings/ dividends
9Overview of the accounting equation Owner’s EquityAssetsLiabilitiesAssetsLiabilitiesBuildingsAccounts ReceivableComputer EquipmentMotor VehiclesAccounts PayableAccrualsBank OverdraftLong-term DebtRevenueExpensesGovernment fundingInterest receivedPrivate DonationsStaff SalariesConsumablesElectricityConsultants (not always)
10Accrual accounting Financial reports are prepared on an accrual basis. Expenses and revenue are recorded when they are incurred or earned, not when cash is paid or received.Example: Purchase of medical suppliesSupplies are ordered on the 30 September.They are delivered on the 24 October.Cash paid for the supplies on the 25 November.SeptemberOctoberNovemberGoods orderedGoods receivedPay creditor
11Accrual accounting example (Cont’d) SeptemberOctoberNovemberGoods orderedGoods receivedPay creditorWhen the goods are ordered – there is no transactionWhen the goods were received, the expense was recognisedThe cash was only paid later, the transaction affecting only the cash balance and the accounts payable / creditor balance.
12Cash flow vs revenue Income and expenses Cash flow is the physical cash received or paid out in the running of the business.Revenue and expenses may be recognised when there has been no cash flow. Cash may also be received / paid with no revenue /expense recognition.Income and expensesIncome: Any increase in equity resulting from increases in assets or decreases in liabilitiesExpense: Any decrease in equity resulting from decreases in assets or increases in liabilities
14CostsFixed (Indirect/Overheads) – are not influenced by the amount produced but can change in the long run e.g.,insurance costs, administration, rent, some types of labour costs (salaries), some types of energy costs, equipment and machinery, buildings, advertising and promotion costsVariable (Direct) – vary directly with the amount produced, e.g.,raw material costs, some direct labour costs, some direct energy costsSemi-fixed – where costs not directly attributable to either of the above, for example, some types of energy and labour costs
15Total Costs (TC) = Fixed Costs (FC)+ Variable Costs (VC) Average Costs = TC/Output (Q)AC (unit costs) show the amount it costs to produce one unit of output on averageMarginal Costs (MC) – the cost of producing one extra or one fewer units of productionMC = TCn – TCn-1
16RevenueTotal Revenue – also known as turnover, sales revenue or ‘sales’ = Price x Quantity SoldTR = P x QPrice – may be a variety of different prices for different products in the portfolioQuantity – could be global sales
17Profit Profit (Π) = TR – TC Normal Profit – the minimum amount required to keep a business in a particular line of productionAbnormal/Supernormal Profit – the amount over and above the amount needed to keep a business in its current line of production
19Occurs where Total Costs = Total Revenue Break EvenOccurs where Total Costs = Total RevenueStart-up costs – fixed costsRunning costs – variable costsRevenue stream depends on price charged‘Low’ price – need to sell more to break-even‘High’ price – lower level of sales required before breaking evenFixed CostsBreak-Even Point =Contribution
21Purpose of AccountsProvide information for stakeholders – customers, shareholders, suppliers, etc.Provides the opportunity for the business to monitor its own activitiesProvides transparency to enable the firm to attract investmentReduces the chance for fraud – not 100% successful!!
22Financial statementsProvide important information about the value of the firm.Three most relevant:Balance sheetProfit and loss statement (income statement)Cash flow statementFinancial analysts and managers learn how to rearrange financial statements to squeeze out the maximum amount of information (using so-called financial analysis)
23Financial Statement Analysis The objective is to show how to rearrange information from financial statements into financial ratios that provide information about five areas of financial performance:Short-term solvency: measure the ability of the firm to meet recurring financial obligations (that is, to pay its bills).Activity: measure how effectively the firm’s assets are being managed.Financial Leverage: related to the extent to which a firm relies on debt financing rather than equity.Profitability: measure the extent to which a firm is profitable.Value: One very important characteristic of a firm that cannot be found on an accounting statement is its market value.
25Profit and Loss Account (income statement) Shows the flow of sales and costs over a periodShows the level of profit or loss madeShows what has been done with the profit or loss
26Income statement – Key terms SalesIncome generated by the sales of goods and services for the specified period. Sales are often categorized by the product sold.Cost of Goods Sold (COGS)Value of the inventory that was sold. It also is often categorized by the product sold.Gross MarginGross Margin = Sales – Cost of GoodsSales ExpensesExpenses incurred to generate or complete the period’s sales.Administrative & General ExpensesExpenses incurred to carry out the management and administrative function of the organization. Many of these expense are incurred whether or not any sales are made.Net Income– is the earning (losses) generated for a period.Net Income = Revenue – COGS – Sales Exp – Adm/Gen. Exp.
28Balance Sheet A snapshot of the firm’s position at a point in time Shows what a company owns (assets) and what it owes (liabilities)Balance Sheet shows what assets a company has (use of funds) and where the money came from to acquire those assets (source of funds)
29Balance Sheet Terms Assets All the resources owned by the firm as of the date of the balance sheet.Current assetsAll the resources which are or will be turned into cash or used up by the firm within the year.CashCash on hand or on deposit with a financial institution with a term of less than one year.Accounts ReceivableMoney owed to the firm usually by customers who have set repayment terms (15 or 30 days to pay).Prepaid expensesExpenses that have be paid in the current accounting period, but all or part of them will apply to the next accounting period.InventoryThe value of goods on hand including all costs in securing or processing the goods. Goods are valued at the lower of cost or market value.
30Balance Sheet Terms (Cont’d) InvestmentsDeposits being held for more than one year or investments in other organizations.Fixed AssetsAssets of an organization that are used up over a number of accounting periods (years). Fixed assets are not charged against income at the time of purchase because of the long term nature of the investment made. Instead depreciation (an expense item) is used to account for the portion of the asset used each year.LiabilitiesDebts of the organization, what the organization owes its creditors.Current liabilitiesDebts payable within the next year.Accounts payableAmount owing to trade suppliers.Accrued liabilitiesOther expenses such as holiday pay which have not been paid at the end of the accounting period.
31Balance Sheet Terms (Cont’d) Owners’ EquityThe members’ share of ownership of the assets of the organization Assets – Liabilities = Owners’ EquityShare CapitalThe members’ direct investment in the organization as an owner.Line of CreditAn bank account overdraft provision that has been pre-arranged with a financial institution.Demand LoansLoans received by organization that are used to finance the firm’s assets and are repayable with set terms. However default on the payment of conditions makes the loans immediately repayable (payable on demand by the financial institution).Retained EarningsThe cumulative earnings (losses) from previous accounting periods that have be retained by the firm to support its financial viability and long term development.Current EarningThe earnings (losses) generated in the current accounting period.
32Key financial termsOther terms like the ones related to cash flows, taxes, financial instruments, budgeting will be introduced gradually during the course (in other and specifically dedicated training sessions).