Presentation on theme: "LIQUIDATION Liquidation or winding up is a Legal term and refers to the procedure through which the affairs of the company are wound up by law."— Presentation transcript:
1 LIQUIDATIONLiquidation or winding up is a Legal term and refers to the procedure through which the affairs of the company are wound up by law.
2 Winding up of a company has been defined in the Companies Act 1956 as “ the process whereby its life is ended and its property is administered for the benefit of its creditors & members. An Administrator called the Liquidator is appointed and he takes control of the company, collects its assets , pays its debts & finally distributes any surplus among the members in accordance with their rights.
3 MODES OF LIQUIDATION MODES OF LIQUIDATION VOLUNTARY WINDING UP COMPULSORY WINDING UPVOLUNTARY WINDING UPSUPERVISION BY COURT
4 Section 425 (1) of the companies act provides that a company can be liquidated in any of the following three ways :COMPULSORY WINDING UP BY THE COURTVOLUNTARY WINDING UP BY THE MEMBERSWINDING UP UNDER THE SUPREVISION OF COURTGenerally the provisions of the Act with respect to the winding up apply to winding up of a company whether it be by the court or voluntary or subject to the supervision of the court [Section 425 (2)]
5 CONSEQUENCES OF WINDING UP The following are the consequences of winding up:An officer called a liquidator is appointed & he takes over the administration of the company. He may be appointed by High Court, members or by the creditors as the case may be.The powers of the board of directors will cease & will now vest the liquidator.Winding up order or resolution of voluntary winding up shall operate as a notice of discharge to all the members of the company. Members of company are called CONTRIBUTORIES.
6 Liquidator of the company will prepare a list of contributories who be made liable to contribute to the assets of the company in case assets are not sufficient to meet the claims of various claimants . In case there is a surplus in the assets, the liquidator of the company will prepare a list of those members, who are entitled to share this surplus.Liquidator of the company will collect & realise its assets & distribute the proceeds among right claimants as per the procedure of the law.Winding up ultimately leads to dissolution of the company. The companies life will come to an end & it will be no more an artificial person in the eyes of law.
7 FRAUDULENT PREFERENCE CONTRIBUTORYAccording to section 428 of the Companies Act, 1956, a contributory is “every person liable to contribute to the assets of a company in the event of it being wound up & includes a holder of fully paid up shares, & also any person alleged to be contributory “A Contributory can be either a present member or a past member.FRAUDULENT PREFERENCEFraudulent preference takes place when one creditor is preferred to another creditor in the matter of payment of his dues. It has been made in the provisions of section 531 that every transfer of property or money made with in 6 months before the commencement of winding up which amounts to fraudulent preference is invalid.
8 INTEREST ON LIABILITIES VOLUNTARY TRANSFERAll voluntary transfers made by the company within a period of one year or before the presentation or petition for winding up or the passing of a resolution for voluntary winding up, are void as against the liquidator.EMPLOYEES & OFFICERSAccording to section 444, a winding up order operates as a notice of discharge to the employees & officers of the company, except when the business of the company is being continue.INTEREST ON LIABILITIESInterest on liabilities is payable upto the date of actual payment if the company is solvent. But if the company is insolvent, interest on liabilities is payable upto the date of commencement of insolvency proceedings.
9 ORDER OF PAYMENTThe amount received from the assets not specifically pledged & the amounts contributed by the contributories must be distributed by the liquidator in the following order:Expenses of winding up including the liquidators remunerationCreditors secured by the floating charge on the assets of the companyPreferential creditorsUnsecured creditorsThe surplus, if any, amongst the contributories (i.e. preference shareholders & equity shareholders) according to their respective rights & interests.
10 PREFERENCE SHAREHOLDERS Preference shareholders get the priority over the equity shareholders as regards the payment of their capital & the dividend payable upto the ate of winding up. The holders of cumulative preference shares are entitled to arrears of dividend if there is a surplus after the return of the amount of the equity shareholders or if the Articles state that arrears of preference dividend are to be paid before anything is paid to equity shareholders.EQUITY SHAREHOLDERSAny surplus left after making payment to preference shareholders is distributed among the equity shareholders if all the shares are equally paid up. But if the shares are called in unequal proportions, the liquidator should see that the capital contribution by the shareholders should be the same.It may be remembered that calls in advance will have priority in repayment over the paid up share capital of that class.
11 PREFERENTIAL CREDITORS Under Section 530 of the Companies Act , the following creditors are treated as preferential creditors:all revenues, taxes, cesses & rates payable to the government or local authority will be treated as preferential creditors provided that it must become due within 12 months before the date of winding up.4 months salary & wages due to the employees of the company will be treated as preferential provided that it must become due within 12 months before the date of winding up. Maximum of Rs will be treated as preferential creditors.All accrued holiday remuneration payable to an employee due to termination of his employment is treated as preferential.
12 The person who advances money for making the payment under (ii) & (iii) mentioned above will be treated as preferential.Any sum payable by the company under the Employees State Insurance Act, 1948 will be treated as preferential provided that it must become due within 12 months before the date of winding up.Compensation payable by the company under Workmen Compensation Act, 1923 is treated as preferential.Any sum payable by the company to its employees from a Providend Fund, Pension Fund, Gratuity Fund or any other fund maintained foe the welfare of the employees.the expenses of investigation held Under Section 235 or 237 will be treated as preferential.
13 FORMAT OF STATEMENT OF AFFAIRS ASSETS NOT SPECIFICALLY PLEDGED (list ‘A’)ESTIMATED REALISABLE VALUE (Rs.)Balance at BankCash in handDebtorsLeasehold PropertyPlant & MachineryInvestmentsOther Assets
14 ASSETS SPECIFICALLY PLDGED (list ‘B’) ESTIMATED REALISABLE VALUE Rs.DUE TO SECURED CREDITORSDEFICIENCY RANKING AS UNSECUREDSURPLUS CARRIED TO LAST COLUMNFreehold propertyESTIMATED SURPLUS FROM ASSETS SPECIFICALLY PLEDGEDESTIMATED TOTAL ASSESTS AVAILABLE FOR PREFRENTIAL CREDITORS, DEBENTUREHOLDERS & UNSECURED CREDITORSSUMMARY OF GROSS ASSETSAMOUNTEstimated value of assets specifically pledgedOther assets
15 Secured creditors (list ‘B’) to the extent it is secured GROSS LIABILITIESRs.LIABILITIESAMOUNTSecured creditors (list ‘B’) to the extent it is securedPreferential creditors (list ‘C’)Estimated balance of assets available for debenture holdersDebenture holders secured by floating charge (list ‘D’)Estimated surplus/deficiency as regards debenture holdersUnsecured creditors (list ‘E’)liability for purchasestelephone rent o/sbills payableEstimated surplus/deficiency as regards creditors (being diff. of gross assets & gross liabilities)
16 EXAMPLE REALAED TO STATEMENT OF AFFAIRS Q. The following information is extracted from books of lucky limited on 31st July ,2010 on which date a winding up order was made.Unsecured creditorsSalaries due for five monthsManaging director’s remunerationBills payableDebtors --- good--- doubtful(estimated to produce rs. 62,000)--- badBills receivable (good rs. 10,000)Bank overdraftLand (estimated to produce rs.5,00,000)Stock (estimated to produce rs.5,80,000)Furniture and fixturesCash in handEstimated liability for bills discountedSecured creditors holding first mortgage on landPartly secured creditors holding second mortgage on landWeekly wages unpaid3,50,00020,00030,0001,06,0004,30,0001,30,00088,00016,00040,0003,60,0008,20,00080,0004,00060,0004,00,0002,00,0006,000
17 Liabilities under workmen’s compensation Act,1925 Income tax due 5000 9% Mortgage debentures of 100 each interest payable to 30th June and 31st December, paid 30th June, 2008Share capital :20,000 10% preference share s of rs. 10 each50,000 Equity shares of rs. 10 eachGeneral reserve since 31st December, 20042,0008,0005,00,0002,00,0001,00,000In 2004 , the company earned profit of rs. 4,50,000 but thereafter it suffered trading losses totaling Rs. 5,84,000 . The company also suffered a speculation loss of Rs. 50,000 during the year Excise authorities imposed a penalty of Rs. 3,50,000 in 2006 for evasion of tax which was paid in 2007.From the foregoing information, prepare the Statement of Affairs and the Deficiency Account.
18 Unsecured Creditors as per List E : Rs. SOLUTIONUnsecured Creditors as per List E : Rs.Unsecured creditors ,50,000One month’s Salaries ( 4 month’ salaries are preferential) ,000Managing Director's Remuneration ,000Bills Payable ,06,000Bank Overdraft ,000Liability on Bills Discounted ,000Amount uncovered in respect of partly secured creditors( Rs. 2,00,000 – Rs. 1,00, value of security ofsecond mortgage on land) ,00,000________6,90,000======Preferential creditors as per List C : Rs.Salaries for 4 months ,000Weekly wages ,000Liabilities under Workmen’s Compensation Act, ,000Income Tax due ,00032,000
19 ------------------------11,66,000 LUCKY LTD (IN LIQUIDATION)STATEMENT OF AFFAIRSAs on July, 2008EstimatedRealisable value4,00010,0004,92,0005,80,00080,000,66,000AssetsAssets not specifically pledged ( as per list A)Cash in handBills ReceivableTrade DebtorsStockFurniture and FixturesAssets specifically pledged (as per List B)estimated due to deficiency surplusrealisable secured ranking as carried tovalue creditors unsecured last columnRs Rs Rs Rs.Land ,00, ,00, ,00,Estimated total assets available for preferential creditors , debenture holders secured by a floating charge and unsecured creditorsSummary of Gross Assets: Rs.Specifically pledged ,00,000Others ,66,00016,66,000
20 --------------16,66,000 -------------- Gross Liabilities Rs. 5,20,000 32,0005,03,7506,90,00017,25,750Liabilities( to be deducted from surplus or added to deficiency as the casemay be )Secured creditors (as per list B ) to the extent to which claimsare estimated to be covered by assets specifically pledgedPreferential Creditors (as per list C)Estimated balance of assets available for debenture holderssecured by a floating charge and unsecured creditorsDebenture holders secured by a floating charge (as per list D)5,00,000Interest due for 1 month 9% p.a ,750Estimated surplus as regards debenture holdersUnsecured creditors (as per list E)Estimated deficiency as regards creditors ,being the differencebetween gross liabilities and gross assetsIssued and called up capital:20,000 10% Preference shares of Rs. 10 each fully paid (as per list F)50,000 equity shares of Rs. 10 each fully paid (as per list G)Estimated Deficiency as regards contributories (as per list H)32,00011,34,0005,03,7506,30,0006,90,00059,7502,00,0005,00,0007,59,750
21 DEFICIENCY ACCOUNT (LIST H) PARTICULARSAMOUNTAMOUTTO EXCESS OF ASSET OVER CAPITALTO NET TRADING ASSSETTO PROFITS AND INCOME OTHER THAN TRADING PROFITSTO DEFICENCY1,00,0004,50,.0001,40,0007,59,750BY NET TRADING LOSSES AFTER DEPRICIATION , TAXATION ETCBY LOSSES OTHER THAN TRADING LOSSESSEPECULATION LOSS 50,000PENALTY IMPOSED BY EXISCE AUTORITIES ,50,000BY ASTIMATED LOSSES NOW WRITTEN OFFB/R ,000DEBTORS ,56,000STOCK ,40,000CONTIGENTLIABILTY ,0005,87,7504,00,0004,62,000
22 LIQUIDQTORS FINAL STATEMENT OF ACCOUNTS The main job of the liquidator is to collect the assets of the company & realise them & distribute the money realised among right claimants.For this purpose he maintains a cash book for recording the receipts & payments & is required to submit an abstract of the cash book to the court in case of compulsory winding up & to the company in case of voluntary winding up.The liquidator is also required to prepare an account known as the Liquidator’s Final Statement of accounts after the affairs of the company are fully wound up.
23 LIQIDATOR’S FINAL STATEMENT OF ACCOUNT ReceiptsAmount(Rs.)PaymentsTo Assets Realised :--- Cash at Bank-- Cash in Hand-- Marketable Securities-- Bills Receivable-- Trade Debtors-- Stock in trade-- Freehold property-- Plant and Machinery-- Furniture and FittingsTo Surplus from Securitiesheld by Secured CreditorsTo Proceeds of calls made oncontributories (on 7500EquityBy Legal ChargesBy Liquidation ExpensesBy Liquidator RemunerationBy Preferential CreditorsBy Debenture -holders (havinga floating charge on theassets of the co.)By Unsecured CreditorsBy Preference ShareholdersBy Equity Shareholders(42500 Rs. 1.50)
24 Example of Liquidators final statement of Accounts Ex: Bekar Ltd. Went into voluntary liquidation. The details regarding liquidation are as follows:Share Capital:2,000 8% preference shares of Rs.100 each(fully paid up)ClassA-2,000 equity shares of Rs.100 each (Rs.75 paid up)ClassB-1,600 equity shares of Rs.100 each (Rs.60 paid up)ClassC-1,400 equity shares of Rs. 100 each (RS.50 paid up)Assets including machinery realized Rs.4,20,000.Liquidation expenses amount to Rs.15,000.Bekar Ltd. Has borrowed a loan of Rs.50,000 from Patel Brothers against the mortgage of machinery (which realized Rs.80,500). In the books of the company salaries of four clerks for four months at a rate of Rs.300 per month & salaries of four peons four three months at a rate of Rs.150 per month, are outstanding. In addition to this, the company’s books show the creditors worth Rs.87,400. Prepare liquidator’s statement of receipts & payments.
25 SOLUTION: Liquidator’s Statement Of Receipts & Payments Assets RealisedSurplus from secured creditors(80,500-50,000)Call on equityRs.3,39,50030,5001,400Liq. ExpensesLiq. RemunerationPreferential creditorsUnsecured creditorsPreference Sh. HolderEquity Sh. Holder15,0005,80088,2002,00,00048,00014,4003,71,400
26 Working notes: 1. Calculation of preferential & unsecured creditors Salaries of 4 Rs.1000(salary of Rs.200/clerk in excess of preferential amount of Rs.800 treated as unsecured)Salaries of 4 Rs.450Other unsecured creditors4,0001,80080087,4005,80088,2002 . Calculation of amount returnable to equity shareholders or Receivable from Equity Shareholders:Rs.Assets Realised ,20,000Less: Payments: Rs.Secured creditors ,000Liquidation Expenses ,000Preferential Creditors ,800Unsecured Creditors ,2001,59,000Balance available for shareholders ,61,000
27 Total No. of Equity shares Amount available for Shareholder ,61,000Less: Capital to be returned to preference shareholder ,00,000Balance available for equity shareholder ,000Less: Equity share paid up:Class A- 2,000 equity Rs = 1,50,000Class B- 1,600 equity Rs = 96,000Class C- 1,400 equity Rs = 70,0003,16,000Loss to be borne by equity shareholders ,55,000Therefore loss per equity share= Total Loss= 2,55,000/5,000= Rs. 51CLASS A B CPaid up RsLoss per shareCalled / returned Rs (1)Total No. of Equity shares