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Chapter 5 Consumer Credit: Advantages, Disadvantages, Sources, and Costs McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5 Consumer Credit: Advantages, Disadvantages, Sources, and Costs McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 5 Consumer Credit: Advantages, Disadvantages, Sources, and Costs McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

2 Consumer Credit Chapter Objectives
Analyze advantages and disadvantages of using consumer credit Assess the types and sources of consumer credit Determine whether you can afford a loan and how to apply for credit Determine the cost of credit by calculating interest using various interest formulas Develop a plan to protect your credit and manage your debts 5-2

3 Objective 1 Analyze Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Consumer Credit
An arrangement to receive cash, goods or services now, and pay for them in the future Based on trust in people’s ability and willingness to pay bills when due Consumer credit Use of credit by individuals for personal needs, except a home mortgage A major force in our economy 5-3

4 Uses and Misuses of Credit
Before you use credit for a major purchase, consider: Do I have the cash for the down payment? Do I want to use my savings for this purchase? Does the purchase fit my budget? Could I use the credit I’ll need in some better way? Can I postpone this purchase? What are the opportunity costs of postponing this purchase? What are the dollar and psychological costs of using credit for this purchase? 5-4

5 Advantages of Credit Current use of goods and services
Permits purchase even when funds are low A cushion for financial emergencies Advance notice of sales Easier to return merchandise Convenient when shopping Provides a record of expenses 5-5

6 Advantages of Credit One monthly payment Safer than carrying cash
Needed for hotel reservations, car rentals, and shopping online Take advantage of float time/grace period Rebates, airline miles, or other bonuses Credit indicates financial stability 5-6

7 Disadvantages of Consumer Credit
Temptation to overspend Can create long-term financial problems and slow progress toward financial goals Potential loss of merchandise due to late or non-payment Ties up future income Credit costs money - more costly than paying with cash 5-7

8 Objective 2 Assess the Types & Sources of Consumer Credit
Two Basic Types of Consumer Credit Closed-End Credit One-time loans for a specific purpose paid back in a specified period of time Open-End Credit Use as needed until line of credit max reached 5-8

9 Closed-End Credit One-time loans for a specific purpose that you pay back in a specified period of time, and in payments of equal amounts Mortgage, automobile, and installment loans for furniture, appliances and electronics 3 most common types of closed-end credit Installment sales credit Installment cash credit Single-lump credit 5-9

10 Open-End Credit Use as needed until line of credit max reached
Credit cards Department store cards Home equity loans You pay interest and finance charges if you do not pay the bill in full when due Revolving check credit Bank line of credit 5-10

11 Sources of Consumer Credit
Loans Borrowing money with an agreement to repay along with interest within a certain amount of time Inexpensive loans Parents or family members Medium-priced loans Commercial banks, savings and loan associations, and credit unions Expensive loans Finance and check cashing companies Retailers such as car or appliance dealers Bank credit cards and cash advances 5-11

12 Sources of Consumer Credit
Home Equity Loans Loan based on your home equity Current market value of your home minus the amount you still owe on the mortgage Interest is tax deductible Should only be used for major purchases Credit Cards Average cardholder has > 9 credit cards Convenience users vs. Borrowers Finance charge = total amount paid to use credit 5-12

13 Sources of Consumer Credit
Debit Cards Debit cards electronically subtract money from your savings or checking accounts Most commonly used at ATMs Stored Value Cards Gift cards Prepaid cards 5-13

14 Sources of Consumer Credit
Smart Cards Plastic card equipped with a computer chip that can store times as much data as a normal credit card Travel and Entertainment (T&E) cards Not really “credit cards”; balance is due in full each month Diners Club; American Express You don’t pay for services or goods at the time you purchase them 5-14

15 Before you take out a loan, ask yourself...
Objective 3 Determine Whether You Can Afford a Loan and How to Apply for Credit Before you take out a loan, ask yourself... Can you meet all your essential expenses and still afford the monthly loan payments ? What do you plan to give up in order to make the payment? 5-15

16 General Rules of Credit Capacity
Debt Payments-to-Income Ratio Monthly Debt Payments* Net Monthly Income Consumer credit payments should not exceed a maximum of 20% of your net income. *Not including house payment which is a long-term liability 5-16

17 General Rules of Credit Capacity
Debt To Equity Ratio Total Liabilities = Should be < 1 Net Worth* *Excluding home value 5-17

18 The Five C’s of Credit Character - Do you pay bills on time?
Capacity - Can you repay the loan? Capital - What are your assets and net worth? Collateral - What assets do you have to secure the loan? Conditions- Lenders will review how general economic conditions will affect your ability to repay your loan 5-18

19 FICO & VantageScore FICO Credit Score VantageScore 350 to 850
Higher score = less risk Available from for a fee VantageScore New scoring technique Developed collaboratively by 3 credit agencies Range = 501 to 990 5-19

20 Factors of Creditworthiness
ECOA (Equal Credit Opportunity Act) Gives all applicants the same rights. Credit providers may not discriminate based on: Age Social Security or public assistance Housing loans (redlining) If you are denied credit, you have the right to know the reasons You can request a copy of your credit report within 60 days if you are denied credit based on what is in your files 5-20

21 Your Credit Report Credit Reports
Record of your complete credit history Credit Bureaus Agencies that collect information on how promptly people and businesses pay their bills Experian, Trans Union and Equifax are the 3 major credit bureaus Credit Bureaus obtain information from banks, finance companies stores, credit card companies and other lenders 5-21

22 Your Credit Report Credit Files
Typically contain detailed credit data along with considerable personal information: Name, address, SSN, DOB (self & spouse) Employer, position and income (current & previous, self and spouse) Home owner or renter Fair Credit Reporting Act (1971) Law allows out-of-date information to be deleted, as well as the right to correct misinformation 5-22

23 Your Credit Report Who can obtain a credit report?
Only authorized persons have access to your report for approved legitimate business purposes Time Limits on Unfavorable Data Adverse data can be reported for 7 years Bankruptcy can be reported for 10 years 5-23

24 Your Credit Report Incorrect Information in Your File
You may request a copy of your credit information within 60 days of being denied credit You may request a free copy of your credit report annually What are Your Legal Rights? You have the legal right to sue the credit bureau or the creditor that has caused you harm 5-24

25 It is important to shop for credit
Objective 4 Determine the Cost of Credit by Calculating Interest Using Various Interest Formulas Finance charge Total dollar amount you pay to use credit Includes interest costs and fees, such as service charges, credit-related insurance premiums, or appraisal fees Annual Percentage Rate (APR) Percentage cost of credit on a yearly basis Key to comparing costs when shopping for rates It is important to shop for credit 5-25

26 Tackling the Trade-Offs
Term (length of loan) versus interest cost Lender risk versus interest rate To reduce the lender’s risk and thus the interest rate you can: Accept a variable interest rate Provide collateral to secure a loan Provide up-front cash Take a shorter term loan 5-26

27 Calculating the Cost of Credit
Simple interest Computed on principal only without compounding The dollar cost of borrowing Interest = Principal x rate x Time Simple interest on the declining balance Interest is paid only on the amount of original principal not yet repaid Add-on interest Interest calculated on full amount of principal Interest added to original principal Payment = Total divided by number of payments to be made 5-27

28 Calculating the Cost of Credit
Cost of Open-End Credit Truth in Lending Act requires that open-end creditors inform consumers as to how the finance charge and APR will affect their costs Cost of Credit and Expected Inflation Lenders incorporate the expected rate of inflation when deciding how much interest to charge Avoid the Minimum Monthly Payment Trap The longer you take to pay off the bill, the more interest you pay 5-28

29 Fair Credit Billing Act (FCBA, 1975)
Objective 5 Develop a Plan to Protect Your Credit and Manage Your Debts Fair Credit Billing Act (FCBA, 1975) Notify creditor of error in writing within 60 days Pay the portion of the bill not in dispute Creditor must respond within 30 days Credit card company has two billing periods but no longer than 90 days to correct your account or tell you why they think the bill is correct 5-29

30 Protecting Your Credit
Fair Credit Billing Act (FCBA, 1975) Disputed item won’t affect your credit rating while in dispute Can withhold payment on damaged or shoddy goods or poor services if purchased with a credit card Must make sincere attempt to resolve problem with creditor 5-30

31 What to Do If Your Identity is Stolen?
Contact the three major credit bureaus Ask the fraud department to institute a fraud alert Request that creditors call you for permission before opening any new accounts in your name Contact creditors Check for any accounts that have been tampered with or opened fraudulently File a police report Keep a copy 5-31

32 Protecting Your Credit From Theft or Loss
Shred any papers that contain personal information Close your accounts immediately if you suspect an identity thief has accessed the account Be sure your credit card is returned after a purchase Keep a record of credit card numbers Notify your credit card company immediately if your card is lost or stolen 5-32

33 Protecting Your Credit Information on The Internet
Use a secure browser Keep records of online transactions Review monthly bank and credit card statements Read the privacy and security policies of websites you visit Keep personal information private Never give your password to anyone Don’t download files sent by strangers 5-33

34 Co-signing a Loan Co-signing means guaranteeing the debt
Lender would not require a co-signer if borrower were a good risk Can you afford it if the borrower defaults? If borrower doesn’t pay, cosigner is liable for the full amount plus any late or collection fees If payment is missed, creditor can collect from the cosigner first 5-34

35 Complaining About Consumer Credit
First: Try to solve the problem directly with the creditor If that fails: Use formal complaint procedures A variety of Consumer Credit Protection Laws and Federal Agencies administer and assist with complaint procedures 5-35

36 Consumer Credit Protection Laws
Truth in Lending and Consumer Leasing Acts Equal Credit Opportunity Act (ECOA) Fair Credit Billing Act Fair Credit Reporting Act Consumer Credit Reporting Reform Act (1977) Electronic Funds Transfer Act Your Rights Under Consumer Credit Laws Complain to the creditor File a complaint with the government If all else fails, sue the creditor 5-36

37 Warning Signs of Debt Problems
Managing Your Debts Warning Signs of Debt Problems Paying only the minimum balance each month Trouble even paying the minimum balance Total balance increases every month Missing loan payments or paying late Using savings to pay for necessities Getting second or third payment notices Borrowing money to pay old debts Exceeding the credit limits on your credit cards Denied credit due to a bad credit report 5-37

38 Debt Collection Practices
Managing Your Debts Debt Collection Practices The Federal Trade Commission enforces the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act (FDCPA) Prohibits certain practices by debt collectors Does not eliminate legitimate debts 5-38

39 Managing Your Debts Consumer Credit Counseling Services (CCCS)
Non-profit and supported by contributions from banks, merchants, etc. Provides education about credit Provides help with spending plan Provides debt counseling services for those with serious financial problems Can develop a debt consolidation plan and negotiate reduced interest rates 5-39

40 Other Counseling Services
Universities, local county extension agents, credit unions, military bases, and state and federal housing authorities provide nonprofit counseling services Check with your financial institution or consumer protection office for a list of reputable, low-cost financial counseling services 5-40

41 Declaring Personal Bankruptcy
U.S. Bankruptcy Act of 1978 Chapter 7 = straight bankruptcy Chapter 13 = wage earner plan Personal bankruptcy is a procedure to distribute some or all of your assets among creditors Bankruptcy should be the last resort, because of the damage to your credit rating 5-41

42 Chapter 7 Bankruptcy Submit a petition to the court that lists assets and liabilities, and pay a filing fee Many, but not all, debts are forgiven Assets sold to pay creditors Can keep some assets (home, vehicle,..) Intent = a fresh start Most filed are this type 5-42

43 After Chapter 7 You May No Longer Owe: You Still May Owe...
Retail store charges Bank credit card charges Unsecured loans Unpaid hospital or physician bills You Still May Owe... Certain taxes and fines Child support and alimony Educational loans Debts from willful or malicious act 5-43

44 Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act of 2005
Makes it more difficult for consumers to file a Chapter 7 bankruptcy Forces a Chapter 13 repayment plan Debtors must wait 8 years from their last bankruptcy to file again Clamps down on “bankruptcy mills” that seek to game the system Includes provisions for consumer education on debt management and financial planning 5-44

45 Chapter 13 Bankruptcy Debtor with regular income proposes a plan to eliminate his debts over time Information provided to the court the same as under Chapter 7 Plan may last up to five years Debtor makes payments to a court-appointed trustee 5-45

46 Obtaining Credit after Bankruptcy
May be more difficult But, creditors may consider the inability to file bankruptcy again for 8 years Could be easier for Chapter 13 filers who have repaid some debt versus Chapter 7 filers who made no effort to repay 5-46

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