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Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2001. All Rights Reserved. 6-1 C HAPTER 6 Personal Finance Kapoor Dlabay Hughes 6e Introduction to.

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Presentation on theme: "Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2001. All Rights Reserved. 6-1 C HAPTER 6 Personal Finance Kapoor Dlabay Hughes 6e Introduction to."— Presentation transcript:

1 Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. 6-1 C HAPTER 6 Personal Finance Kapoor Dlabay Hughes 6e Introduction to Consumer Credit

2 Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. What is Consumer Credit? Credit is an arrangement to receive cash, goods or services now, and paying for them in the future. Consumer credit is the use of credit for personal needs, except a home mortgage. It is a major force in the American economy. There are three ways consumers can finance current purchases.  Take money from savings.  Use present earnings.  Borrow against future income. Trade-offs are involved in using credit. 6-2

3 Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Credit Considerations Before you use credit for a major purchase, ask yourself some questions.  Could I pay cash or make a down payment?  Do I want to use savings for this purchase?  Does purchase fit with my goals and budget?  Could I use the credit I’ll need in some better way?  Can I postpone this purchase?  What are the opportunity costs of postponing this purchase?  What are the dollar and psychological costs of using credit for this purchase? 6-3

4 Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Advantages of Credit Current use of goods and services. Permit purchase even when funds are low. Use for financial emergencies. Convenient when shopping. Safer than cash. Can take advantage of float time. May get rebates, airline miles or other bonuses. Demonstrates financial stability. 6-4

5 Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Disadvantages of Consumer Credit Purchases are more expensive. Temptation to overspend. Ties up future income. Possible financial difficulties. Potential loss of merchandise due to late or non-payment. 6-5

6 Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Types of Credit 6-6 Closed-End Credit.  For a specific purpose and amount.  Mortgage loan.  Automobile loans.  Installment loans. Open-End Credit.  Use as needed until reaching line of credit.  You pay interest and finance charges if you do not pay the bill in full when due.  Revolving check credit - prearranged loan.  Home equity loan.

7 Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Credit Cards Nearly eight out of ten American households carry one or more credit cards. One-third are convenience users. They pay their balance off in full each month. The other two-thirds are borrowers. Co-branding - linking a credit card with a business offering rebates on products and services. Smart cards have an imbedded computer chip. Debit cards are not credit cards. 6-7 MasterCard

8 Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Protecting Yourself Against Credit Card Fraud Sign new cards as soon as they arrive. Treat the cards like money - keep them secure. Shred anything with your account number on it. Don’t give your number over the phone unless you initiate the call. Get your card and a receipt after every transaction and compare them to your bills when they arrive. Check your statements for errors. Notify issuer if you don’t get your billing statement. Check your credit report every few years. 6-8

9 Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Measuring Your Credit Capacity Before you take out a loan, ask yourself...  Can you afford the loan?  What do you plan to give up in order to make the payment? Before cosigning a loan consider...  If the person doesn’t pay, you will have to.  Can you afford to pay if the person does not?  It can affect your credit report.  Request that a copy of overdue payment notices be sent to you. 6-9

10 Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Credit Capacity Indicators * Not including housing Debt Payments-to-Income Ratio monthly payments* monthly after tax income 6-10

11 Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Credit Capacity Indicators Debt To Equity Ratio total liabilities net worth* = Should be < 1 *Excluding home value 6-11

12 Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Build and Maintain Your Credit Rating Limit your borrowing to your capacity to repay. Pay all bills promptly. Check to see what is in your credit report.  Credit bureaus collect information.  Experian, Trans Union and Equifax.  Mix-ups and errors in credit reports have improved recently.  Bureaus get information from banks, finance and credit card companies, merchants and other creditors. 6-12

13 Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Fair Credit Reporting Act  Is your credit report accurate? If you are denied credit based on your report, you can get a copy of your credit report free within 60 days of your request. Inaccurate information must be corrected within 30 days. Only authorized persons have access to your report. Adverse data can be reported for seven years and bankruptcy for ten years. 6-13

14 Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. What If You are Denied Credit? Ask the creditor to clarify the specific reason for denial of credit. Check your credit report file. Apply to another creditor with different standards. Take steps to improve your creditworthiness. You have the right to provide a 100 word explanation in your file.  For example, you could explain if you were out of work due to an extended illness and were therefore late paying bills for a time. Seek help if you think there is discrimination. 6-14

15 Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. What Creditors Look For: 5 Cs Character - Do you pay bills on time? Capacity - Can you repay the loan? Capital - What are your assets and net worth? Collateral - What do you have of value that the lender can take if you don’t repay? Conditions - What economic conditions could affect your repayment of the loan? 6-15

16 Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Avoiding and Correcting Credit Mistakes Notify creditor of error in writing within 60 days. Send it to the correct address. They must respond within 30 days. Credit card company has 90 days to resolve the problem or tell you why they think the bill is correct. Won’t affect your credit rating while in dispute. You can withhold payment on shoddy goods if you have paid for them with a credit card. Fair Credit Billing Act 6-16

17 Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Complaining About Consumer Credit First try to solve the problem directly with the creditor. If that does not work there are more formal complaint procedures. There are a variety of consumer credit protection laws and federal agencies who administer and assist with complaint procedures. 6-17

18 Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Truth In Lending Rights  The Truth In Lending Act requires creditors to provide you with accurate and complete credit costs and terms. APR Creditors must disclose credit terms and information...  In a clear and conspicuous manner.  In a form you can keep. 6-18

19 Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Fair Debt Collection Practices Act Can’t be abusive or threaten. Can’t call you at work if you say not to. Can’t tell boss and friends. Can’t call you at odd hours. Must follow set procedures. The act does not apply to creditors that try and collect the debt themselves. Collection agencies

20 Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Protection Under Other Consumer Credit Laws Consumer Leasing Act. Equal Credit Opportunity Act. Fair Credit Billing Act. Fair Credit Reporting Act. Consumer Credit Reporting Reform Act. 6-20

21 Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Identity Theft Protect yourself by shredding old credit slips, account statements, and credit offers you receive in the mail. You may not know your identity has been stolen until you receive a bill with charges that are not yours. Take three actions once you know.  Contact the fraud departments of each of the three major credit bureaus.  Contact the creditors for any accounts that have been tampered with or opened illegally.  File a police report. 6-21


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