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Prevention Analysis Security Services. Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.

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Presentation on theme: "Prevention Analysis Security Services. Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission."— Presentation transcript:

1 Prevention Analysis Security Services

2 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Copyright and Terms of Service Copyright © Texas Education Agency, These materials are copyrighted © and trademarked ™ as the property of the Texas Education Agency (TEA) and may not be reproduced without the express written permission of TEA, except under the following conditions: 1) Texas public school districts, charter schools, and Education Service Centers may reproduce and use copies of the Materials and Related Materials for the districts’ and schools’ educational use without obtaining permission from TEA. 2) Residents of the state of Texas may reproduce and use copies of the Materials and Related Materials for individual personal use only, without obtaining written permission of TEA. 3) Any portion reproduced must be reproduced in its entirety and remain unedited, unaltered and unchanged in any way. 4) No monetary charge can be made for the reproduced materials or any document containing them; however, a reasonable charge to cover only the cost of reproduction and distribution may be charged. Private entities or persons located in Texas that are not Texas public school districts, Texas Education Service Centers, or Texas charter schools or any entity, whether public or private, educational or non-educational, located outside the state of Texas MUST obtain written approval from TEA and will be required to enter into a license agreement that may involve the payment of a licensing fee or a royalty. Contact TEA Copyrights with any questions you may have. TEA CopyrightsTEA Copyrights 2

3 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Crime The Crime Equation The Crime Equation – In order for a crime to be committed, three elements have to exist for the criminal: Ability to carry out the crime Ability to carry out the crime Motivation (desire) to carry out the crime Motivation (desire) to carry out the crime Opportunity to carry out the crime Opportunity to carry out the crime 3

4 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Crime Reporting The private security industry plays a major role in crime prevention efforts The private security industry plays a major role in crime prevention efforts Much of security’s role involves eliminating criminal opportunities Much of security’s role involves eliminating criminal opportunities The most common reason for not reporting a crime is that the victim considers the offense to be a private matter The most common reason for not reporting a crime is that the victim considers the offense to be a private matter Crime is measured by two sources Crime is measured by two sources – Uniform Crime Reports (UCR’s) – National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) 4

5 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Crime Reporting (continued) Uniform Crime Reports (UCR’s) Uniform Crime Reports (UCR’s) – Created in 1929 by the International Association of Chiefs of Police to meet a need for reliable, uniform crime statistics for the nation – Consist of crime indexes (i.e. burglary, motor vehicle theft, and arson) published annually by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), which summarize the incidence and rate of reported crimes within the US – Compile data from monthly law enforcement reports or individual crime incident records transmitted to the FBI or to centralized state agencies that then report to the FBI 5

6 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Crime Reporting (continued) National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) – A national survey conducted by the Bureau of Justice Statistics and the US Census Bureau for the purpose of building a crime index – Consists of questions regarding the respondents’ experiences with criminal activity – Designed with objectives such as estimating the numbers and types of crimes that are not reported to police 6

7 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Crime Prevention Any action taken to reduce crime risks and build individual and community safety Any action taken to reduce crime risks and build individual and community safety Usually described by a three-pronged approach—primary, secondary, and tertiary— each of which involve some level of community involvement with private security efforts Usually described by a three-pronged approach—primary, secondary, and tertiary— each of which involve some level of community involvement with private security efforts 7

8 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Primary Crime Prevention Addresses the conditions in the natural environment that may lead to the development of crime such as neighborhood disorder Addresses the conditions in the natural environment that may lead to the development of crime such as neighborhood disorder – Broken windows – Abandoned buildings – Lack of street maintenance – Broken down cars Suggests that the removal of these risk factors greatly reduces the chances of criminal activity Suggests that the removal of these risk factors greatly reduces the chances of criminal activity 8

9 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Secondary Crime Prevention Identifies high-crime areas that have the potential to result in criminal behavior Identifies high-crime areas that have the potential to result in criminal behavior Prevents crime by focusing on potential offenders or potential opportunities that nurture criminal activity Prevents crime by focusing on potential offenders or potential opportunities that nurture criminal activity 9

10 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Tertiary Crime Prevention Deals with the actual offenders Deals with the actual offenders Involves intervention techniques Involves intervention techniques Focuses on the prevention of recidivism through Focuses on the prevention of recidivism through – Post-adjudication – Diversion – Reform – Rehabilitation – Incapacitation – Job opportunities for ex-offenders – Aftercare services – Other techniques 10

11 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Theories of Crime Prevention: Deterrence Theory Deterrence – a theory of justice whereby the aim of punishment is to prevent or deter future criminal activity Deterrence – a theory of justice whereby the aim of punishment is to prevent or deter future criminal activity General deterrence – a philosophy stating that punishing an individual offender deters others from offending, and that persons engage in criminal activity if they do not fear apprehension and punishment General deterrence – a philosophy stating that punishing an individual offender deters others from offending, and that persons engage in criminal activity if they do not fear apprehension and punishment Specific deterrence (a.k.a. special deterrence) – crime prevention techniques that are achieved by instilling fear in the individual being punished, so that the person refrains from future violation of the law Specific deterrence (a.k.a. special deterrence) – crime prevention techniques that are achieved by instilling fear in the individual being punished, so that the person refrains from future violation of the law Incapacitation – prevent future crimes by removing the individual’s ability to commit criminal acts, instead of rehabilitating the individual; considered by some to be a subset of specific deterrence Incapacitation – prevent future crimes by removing the individual’s ability to commit criminal acts, instead of rehabilitating the individual; considered by some to be a subset of specific deterrence 11

12 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Theories of Crime Prevention: Situational Crime Prevention Theory Seeks to reduce opportunities for specific categories of crime by increasing the associated risks/difficulties and reducing the rewards Seeks to reduce opportunities for specific categories of crime by increasing the associated risks/difficulties and reducing the rewards Proceeds from an analysis of the circumstances that give rise to specific kinds of crime Proceeds from an analysis of the circumstances that give rise to specific kinds of crime Criminal events are not simply a function of where criminals live, but also the concentration of opportunities for crime Criminal events are not simply a function of where criminals live, but also the concentration of opportunities for crime Crime is much more likely to occur in certain “hot spots,” and thefts are also highly concentrated on popular products Crime is much more likely to occur in certain “hot spots,” and thefts are also highly concentrated on popular products Some repeat victims are more likely to experience crime than others Some repeat victims are more likely to experience crime than others 12

13 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Theories of Crime Prevention: The Routine Activities Theory Focuses on the characteristics of the crime rather than the characteristics of the offender Focuses on the characteristics of the crime rather than the characteristics of the offender Criminal offenses are related to the nature of everyday patterns of social interaction Criminal offenses are related to the nature of everyday patterns of social interaction For a crime to occur, there must be a convergence in time and space of three elements: For a crime to occur, there must be a convergence in time and space of three elements: – Suitable target – Absence of a capable guardian against crime – Likely offender When all three factors are present the chances of criminal activity increase substantially When all three factors are present the chances of criminal activity increase substantially The rate crime increases is equal to the number of suitable targets and the absence of individuals to protect the targets The rate crime increases is equal to the number of suitable targets and the absence of individuals to protect the targets 13

14 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Theories of Crime Prevention: Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) Theory A unique approach to preventing crime that focuses on the physical environment A unique approach to preventing crime that focuses on the physical environment Offenders are rational and look for unguarded targets in the selection of a crime site Offenders are rational and look for unguarded targets in the selection of a crime site The physical environment can play a role in determining the opportunities for crime in two ways: The physical environment can play a role in determining the opportunities for crime in two ways: – Directly – reduces access to property and can remove criminal opportunity through target hardening – Indirectly – reduces crime, fear, and related problems by influencing the social behavior and social perceptions of residents and/or potential offenders 14

15 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Theories of Crime Prevention: CPTED Theory (continued) Involves the proper design and effective use of the built environment in a manner that can lead to a reduction in the fear and incidents of crime, and an improvement in the quality of life Involves the proper design and effective use of the built environment in a manner that can lead to a reduction in the fear and incidents of crime, and an improvement in the quality of life Provides a physical structure in which individuals have the opportunity, encouragement, and means to extend their use and sphere of responsibility for their neighborhood Provides a physical structure in which individuals have the opportunity, encouragement, and means to extend their use and sphere of responsibility for their neighborhood 15

16 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Theories of Crime Prevention: CPTED Theory (continued) Relies on the ability to influence offender decisions that precede criminal acts Relies on the ability to influence offender decisions that precede criminal acts Requires the cooperation of police and private security authorities, architects, city planners, landscape designers, and resident volunteers to create a climate of safety in a community Requires the cooperation of police and private security authorities, architects, city planners, landscape designers, and resident volunteers to create a climate of safety in a community 16

17 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Theories of Crime Prevention: CPTED Theory (continued) Includes strategies with three important components Includes strategies with three important components – Natural Surveillance – the placement of physical features, activities, and people in a way that maximizes visibility and focuses on keeping intruders easily observable and therefore less likely to commit criminal acts – Natural Access Control – a design concept that focuses primarily on decreasing criminal opportunities by denying access to the crime targets and creating a perception of risk for offenders – Territorial Reinforcement – uses physical design to create or extend a sphere of influence. Residents or legitimate users of an area are encouraged to develop a sense of territorial control, while potential offenders, perceiving this control are discouraged 17

18 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Theories of Crime Prevention: Target Hardening Theory The concept of reducing the opportunity for an offender to carry out a crime as a means to prevent crime The concept of reducing the opportunity for an offender to carry out a crime as a means to prevent crime Based on strengthening the defenses of a site to deter an attack and/or delay the success of an attack Based on strengthening the defenses of a site to deter an attack and/or delay the success of an attack Criminals often seek the easy target to minimize the risk of being detected Criminals often seek the easy target to minimize the risk of being detected Examples include Examples include – Secure doors – Locks – Windows – Alarm systems – Adequate lighting 18

19 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Resources , Introduction to Private Security: Theory Meets Practice, Cliff Roberson and Michael L. Birzer, Prentice Hall, , Introduction to Private Security: Theory Meets Practice, Cliff Roberson and Michael L. Birzer, Prentice Hall, , Introduction to Security, Robert J. Fischer and Gion Green, Butterworth- Heinemann, , Introduction to Security, Robert J. Fischer and Gion Green, Butterworth- Heinemann, 2008 Investigator/Officer’s personal experience Investigator/Officer’s personal experience Do an Internet search for the following: CPTED crime and design video Do an Internet search for the following: CPTED crime and design video 19


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