Presentation on theme: "Unit 2 Chapter 11: The Romans"— Presentation transcript:
1Unit 2 Chapter 11: The Romans Standard MWH 2.1 Evaluate the consequences of the changing boundaries of kingdoms in Europe, Asia, the Americas, and Africa
2Why would the authors begin and end the chapter with the story about Paul of Tarsus? What are they trying to say about the lasting influence of Rome?
3Etruscans and Rome’s beginnings Likely migrated from AnatoliaPo River – NaplesBronze, iron, gold, silverMonarchyFounded Rome
4Location, Location, Location! Even when Etruscan influence faded Rome stayed strong, why?
5Rise of the Roman republic 2 consuls elected by hereditary aristocratsSenators were aristocratsPlebians threatened secessionWon the right to elect tribunes (2-10) w/veto powerContinued to win more rights as the centuries wanedStruggle of the Orders
6The early republic Read: Cincinnatus Saves Rome Discuss: What did Livy indicate that Romans valued?Characteristics that made Rome successfulDiplomacyMilitaryStrategyPolitically savvy
7Twelve Tables 12 tables – applied only to roman citizens Law of Nations – codified body of law similar to natural or universal law, based on reasonApplied to non-Roman citizensWhat other examples of codified law have you studied? How does this compare?
8The Punic Wars 1st war started over Sicily Rome won2nd war Hannibal crossed the alps – taking terrible lossesRome lost 40,000 + menPhilip V of Macedonia had joined in losing what was left of the Selucid kingdomEventually Rome raised another army any won
9Tiberius & Gaius Gracchus Wanted to give something to the little man (land reform)T. & later G. both killed by the senateThis opened the door to more instability and angst among the poor
10Spartacus” 109-71 BCE Slave revolts were common 73 BCE the most famous led by Spartacus6000 slaves crucified along the road by Pompey
11A new kind of fighting force 107 BC Marius started to recruit based on personal not state oathHow would this one detail change the way the army worked? The way generals behaved politically? The way power passed down from one generation to the next?
12Cicero (primary source document): linking Greek Philosophy w/Roman ways of life Marcus: Let us, then, once more examine, before we come to the consideration of particular laws, what is the power and nature of law in general; lest, when we come to refer everything to it, we occasionally make mistakes from the employment of incorrect language, and show ourselves ignorant of the force of those terms which we ought to employ in the definition of laws.Quintus: This is a very necessary caution, and the proper method of seeking truth.Marcus: This, then, as it appears to me, has been the decision of the wisest philosophers---that law was neither a thing to be contrived by the genius of man, nor established by any decree of the people, but a certain eternal principle, which governs the entire universe, wisely commanding what is right and prohibiting what is wrong. Therefore, they called that aboriginal and supreme law the mind of God, enjoining or forbidding each separate thing in accordance with reason. On which account it is that this law, which the gods have bestowed upon the human race, is so justly applauded. For it is the reason and mind of a wise Being equally able to urge us to good or to deter us from evil.
131st Triumvirate Julius Caesar, Crassus, Pompey Secret alliance Cemented by the marriage of Julia to PompeyCrassus got military glory and wealth
14Working with a partner, discuss, debate, and compare the ascension and fall of Sulla to that of Julius Caesar. 1) Write down 3 similarities and 3 differences. 2) Explain which leader was better for Rome in the long run and why.
19Smart Search (use your technology) What clothing did Patricians wear? What about Plebians?Where did the Patrician cloth come from and how did it get to Rome?How did cloth help to symbolize one’s status in ancient Rome?What did Patricians eat? What about Plebians?What other cultural differences existed in Roman society?
20Constants create a civilization Communication networksTransportationnetworksLaw
22Father of the Family Marriage Work Freedom Circumvented by loopholes Complete freedom over slaves (1/3 of all people)
23Roman ReligionWhat differentiated Christianity from other Roman religions?How did other developments in Roman society make Christianity an attractive alternative to other religions?PaganismStoicismCult of Mithras (soldiers)JudaismChristianityEssenes
24Mt. Vesuvis erupts 79 CEPompeii was buried under feet of ash
25What was it about imperial rule that most galled the Jewish people of Palestine? Abomination of desolation 168 BCE Selucid ruler AntiochusYahweh worship
26Growth of Christianity Used Roman roads and waterways to spreadInitially persecuted, later embracedAppealed to lower classes, urban populations, and women
27Recreation = a long reign Chariot races, gladatorial contests – designed to distractSubsidies of grain for the poor