Presentation on theme: "Standard MWH 2.1 Evaluate the consequences of the changing boundaries of kingdoms in Europe, Asia, the Americas, and Africa."— Presentation transcript:
Standard MWH 2.1 Evaluate the consequences of the changing boundaries of kingdoms in Europe, Asia, the Americas, and Africa
What are they trying to say about the lasting influence of Rome?
Likely migrated from Anatolia Po River – Naples Bronze, iron, gold, silver Monarchy Founded Rome
Even when Etruscan influence faded Rome stayed strong, why?
2 consuls elected by hereditary aristocrats Senators were aristocrats Plebians threatened secession Won the right to elect tribunes (2-10) w/veto power Continued to win more rights as the centuries waned Struggle of the Orders
Read: Cincinnatus Saves Rome Discuss: What did Livy indicate that Romans valued? Characteristics that made Rome successful Diplomacy Military Strategy Politically savvy
12 tables – applied only to roman citizens Law of Nations – codified body of law similar to natural or universal law, based on reason Applied to non-Roman citizens What other examples of codified law have you studied? How does this compare?
1 st war started over Sicily Rome won 2 nd war Hannibal crossed the alps – taking terrible losses Rome lost 40,000 + men Philip V of Macedonia had joined in losing what was left of the Selucid kingdom Eventually Rome raised another army any won
Wanted to give something to the little man (land reform) T. & later G. both killed by the senate This opened the door to more instability and angst among the poor
Slave revolts were common 73 BCE the most famous led by Spartacus 6000 slaves crucified along the road by Pompey
107 BC Marius started to recruit based on personal not state oath How would this one detail change the way the army worked? The way generals behaved politically? The way power passed down from one generation to the next?
Marcus: Let us, then, once more examine, before we come to the consideration of particular laws, what is the power and nature of law in general; lest, when we come to refer everything to it, we occasionally make mistakes from the employment of incorrect language, and show ourselves ignorant of the force of those terms which we ought to employ in the definition of laws. Quintus: This is a very necessary caution, and the proper method of seeking truth. Marcus: This, then, as it appears to me, has been the decision of the wisest philosophers---that law was neither a thing to be contrived by the genius of man, nor established by any decree of the people, but a certain eternal principle, which governs the entire universe, wisely commanding what is right and prohibiting what is wrong. Therefore, they called that aboriginal and supreme law the mind of God, enjoining or forbidding each separate thing in accordance with reason. On which account it is that this law, which the gods have bestowed upon the human race, is so justly applauded. For it is the reason and mind of a wise Being equally able to urge us to good or to deter us from evil.
Julius Caesar, Crassus, Pompey Secret alliance Cemented by the marriage of Julia to Pompey Crassus got military glory and wealth
Beat Mark Antony & Cleopatra bringing unimaginable wealth to Rome Monarchy disguised as republic Stabilized through spending Pax Romana
Ranked w/Virgil & Homer among the greatest poets
What clothing did Patricians wear? What about Plebians? Where did the Patrician cloth come from and how did it get to Rome? How did cloth help to symbolize one’s status in ancient Rome? What did Patricians eat? What about Plebians? What other cultural differences existed in Roman society?
Communication networks Transportation networks Law
Marriage Work Freedom Circumvented by loopholes Complete freedom over slaves (1/3 of all people)
What differentiated Christianity from other Roman religions? How did other developments in Roman society make Christianity an attractive alternative to other religions? Paganism Stoicism Cult of Mithras (soldiers) Judaism Christianity Essenes