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Unit 2 Chapter 11: The Romans

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1 Unit 2 Chapter 11: The Romans
Standard MWH 2.1 Evaluate the consequences of the changing boundaries of kingdoms in Europe, Asia, the Americas, and Africa

2 Why would the authors begin and end the chapter with the story about Paul of Tarsus?
What are they trying to say about the lasting influence of Rome?

3 Etruscans and Rome’s beginnings
Likely migrated from Anatolia Po River – Naples Bronze, iron, gold, silver Monarchy Founded Rome

4 Location, Location, Location!
Even when Etruscan influence faded Rome stayed strong, why?

5 Rise of the Roman republic
2 consuls elected by hereditary aristocrats Senators were aristocrats Plebians threatened secession Won the right to elect tribunes (2-10) w/veto power Continued to win more rights as the centuries waned Struggle of the Orders

6 The early republic Read: Cincinnatus Saves Rome
Discuss: What did Livy indicate that Romans valued? Characteristics that made Rome successful Diplomacy Military Strategy Politically savvy

7 Twelve Tables 12 tables – applied only to roman citizens
Law of Nations – codified body of law similar to natural or universal law, based on reason Applied to non-Roman citizens What other examples of codified law have you studied? How does this compare?

8 The Punic Wars 1st war started over Sicily
Rome won 2nd war Hannibal crossed the alps – taking terrible losses Rome lost 40,000 + men Philip V of Macedonia had joined in losing what was left of the Selucid kingdom Eventually Rome raised another army any won

9 Tiberius & Gaius Gracchus
Wanted to give something to the little man (land reform) T. & later G. both killed by the senate This opened the door to more instability and angst among the poor

10 Spartacus” 109-71 BCE Slave revolts were common
73 BCE the most famous led by Spartacus 6000 slaves crucified along the road by Pompey

11 A new kind of fighting force
107 BC Marius started to recruit based on personal not state oath How would this one detail change the way the army worked? The way generals behaved politically? The way power passed down from one generation to the next?

12 Cicero (primary source document): linking Greek Philosophy w/Roman ways of life
Marcus: Let us, then, once more examine, before we come to the consideration of particular laws, what is the power and nature of law in general; lest, when we come to refer everything to it, we occasionally make mistakes from the employment of incorrect language, and show ourselves ignorant of the force of those terms which we ought to employ in the definition of laws. Quintus: This is a very necessary caution, and the proper method of seeking truth. Marcus: This, then, as it appears to me, has been the decision of the wisest philosophers---that law was neither a thing to be contrived by the genius of man, nor established by any decree of the people, but a certain eternal principle, which governs the entire universe, wisely commanding what is right and prohibiting what is wrong. Therefore, they called that aboriginal and supreme law the mind of God, enjoining or forbidding each separate thing in accordance with reason. On which account it is that this law, which the gods have bestowed upon the human race, is so justly applauded. For it is the reason and mind of a wise Being equally able to urge us to good or to deter us from evil.

13 1st Triumvirate Julius Caesar, Crassus, Pompey Secret alliance
Cemented by the marriage of Julia to Pompey Crassus got military glory and wealth

14 Working with a partner, discuss, debate, and compare the ascension and fall of Sulla to that of Julius Caesar. 1) Write down 3 similarities and 3 differences. 2) Explain which leader was better for Rome in the long run and why.

15 Why was Julius Caesar killed?

16 Augustus Beat Mark Antony & Cleopatra bringing unimaginable wealth to Rome Monarchy disguised as republic Stabilized through spending Pax Romana

17 Ovid Ranked w/Virgil & Homer among the greatest poets

18 Roman Roads – key to the empire

19 Smart Search (use your technology)
What clothing did Patricians wear? What about Plebians? Where did the Patrician cloth come from and how did it get to Rome? How did cloth help to symbolize one’s status in ancient Rome? What did Patricians eat? What about Plebians? What other cultural differences existed in Roman society?

20 Constants create a civilization
Communication networks Transportation networks Law

21 Trade on a grander scale than even the Greeks.

22 Father of the Family Marriage Work Freedom Circumvented by loopholes
Complete freedom over slaves (1/3 of all people)

23 Roman Religion What differentiated Christianity from other Roman religions? How did other developments in Roman society make Christianity an attractive alternative to other religions? Paganism Stoicism Cult of Mithras (soldiers) Judaism Christianity Essenes

24 Mt. Vesuvis erupts 79 CE Pompeii was buried under feet of ash

25 What was it about imperial rule that most galled the Jewish people of Palestine?
Abomination of desolation 168 BCE Selucid ruler Antiochus Yahweh worship

26 Growth of Christianity
Used Roman roads and waterways to spread Initially persecuted, later embraced Appealed to lower classes, urban populations, and women

27 Recreation = a long reign
Chariot races, gladatorial contests – designed to distract Subsidies of grain for the poor


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