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Internal Membrane System Division II By Ann, Alex W., Alex O., and Taylor.

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Presentation on theme: "Internal Membrane System Division II By Ann, Alex W., Alex O., and Taylor."— Presentation transcript:

1 Internal Membrane System Division II By Ann, Alex W., Alex O., and Taylor

2 Three Parts of The Internal Membrane System DII ● Golgi Apparatus/Vacuoles ● Lysosomes ● Peroxisomes

3 Golgi Apparatus ●receives proteins and lipids(fats) from the rough endoplasmic reticulum ●modifies, sorts, and packs these materials into sealed droplets called vesicles ●the vesicles are then sent into the lysosomes, plasma membrane, or outside the cell ●found in plants and animals

4 Vacuoles ●in plants and animals(much smaller in animals) ●membrane-enclosed fluid filled sac ●main functions: ○ make plants rigid by using water to develop hydrostatic pressure ○ store nutrient and non-nutrient chemicals ○ processing and storage of waste products ○ help in cell elongation

5 Why are they important? ●without the Golgi Apparatus, cells would not be able to properly use biochemicals ○insulin ○digestive enzymes ○pectin ●plants need vacuoles because they don’t have a well-developed excretory system ●plants store their chemicals(such as petal pigments) in vacuoles ○these chemicals can deter predators or attract pollinators to plants ●vacuoles store food material for the next generation, which is especially important in plants that don’t germinate right away(ex. tubers, rhizomes, and bulbs)

6 Lysosomes- Little Enzyme Packages ●Lysosomes are single-membrane bounded organelles found mainly in animal eukaryotic cells. ●They hold enzymes proteins which are created in the rough ER. ●The purpose of a Lysosome is to break down/digest macromolecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, food), repair cell membranes and respond against foreign substances such as bacteria, viruses and other antigens. ●Lysosomes can be found floating in the cytoplasm until they are needed. If there is nothing to digest or break down, lysosomes will actually digest the cell organelles for nutrients.

7 Why are they important? ●Lysosomes consume worn out structures in the cell and fight off bacteria/viruses keeping the organelle safe. ●Since lysosomes break down and digest unwanted substances, they are necessary in getting rid of waste. ●If a cell did not have lysosomes, it would potentially starve, since Lysosomes contain enzymes important for digesting nutrients. ●Without them it could lead to LSD (Lysosomal Storage Disease) or death.

8 Lysosomes Summary

9 Peroxisomes ● peroxisomes are single membrane organelles that does not produce DNA or enzymes. ● All enzymes are imported into the organelle to break down things that are toxic to the entire cell and the organelle. ● Synthesizes cholesterol, bile acids, and lipids for the myelin sheath. ● Breaks down fatty acids and hydrogen peroxide. ● They are also referred to as microbodies.

10 Why are they important? ●The lipids for the myelin sheath are needed to basically function. the disorder for not having these lipids is X-linked Adrenoleukodystrophy and its the disease the boy in lorenzo's oil has. ●Also if it were not to break down the acids and hydrogen peroxide than these would become very toxic to the cell and start damaging it.

11 Sources ● ● ● endomembrane-system-and-proteins-61/lysosomes-321-11457/ endomembrane-system-and-proteins-61/lysosomes-321-11457/ ● ●

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