Presentation on theme: "BELLWORK 1.In your opinion, what were the TWO main developments of the arms race? 2.Why was the arms race so intense during the Cold War? What fueled this."— Presentation transcript:
BELLWORK 1.In your opinion, what were the TWO main developments of the arms race? 2.Why was the arms race so intense during the Cold War? What fueled this race? 3.Explain Eisenhower’s arms race policy of “massive retaliation.” 4.Explain Kennedy’s arms race policy of “counterforce.” Why was this problematic? 5.How were nuclear weapons limited between 1968-1972? 6.THINKER: Robert McNamara (JFK’s Secretary of Defense) believed MAD was a deterrent to nuclear war….. “It’s not mad! Mutually Assured Destruction is the foundation of deterrence.” Do you agree with McNamara’s view that MAD made the world a safer place? Explain!
The Cold War Arms Race After the U.S. dropped nuclear bombs on Japan, the world wanted their own nuclear bombs. This started an arms race: competition between two or more countries for the best/most armed forces & weapons. Each country competes to produce larger numbers of weapons, greater armies and military technologies. UK, France, US, Soviet Union, and People’s Republic of China all produced nuclear weapons.
Soviet Power American experts believed that the Soviet Union would not have nuclear bombs until the mid 50s. However, the Soviet Union tested their first atomic bomb in 1949 Joe-One, the Soviets first nuclear bomb, was a copy of the American bomb, Fat Man. (weaker) The whole world watched in shock at the Soviet Union’s new weapon.
Soviet Program VS American Program Both parties believed that more nukes = more power! Soviet Union built more nuclear weapons with cheaper quality. Americans built fewer nuclear weapons, but with better quality.
Hydrogen Bomb Both countries worked frantically to produce the first hydrogen bomb. The US detonated the first H-Bomb in November 1952. The Soviets exploded their H-Bomb in August 1953.
Hydrogen Bomb Explosion US exploded its first hydrogen bomb in 1952. It was 1000 times more powerful than the Hiroshima atomic bomb. USSR detonated theirs in 1953
Global Nuclear Confrontation The Soviet army had over 260 divisions of the armed forces. – American military planners were forced to adopt a nuclear strategy in face of the overwhelmingly superiority of Soviet forces. – They would deter any Soviet attack by setting in place a devastating atomic counterattack. For the next quarter century, the U.S. and the USSR would engage in a nuclear arms race that constantly increased the destructive capability of both sides.
ICBMs Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles The most important development in terms of nuclear delivery in the 1950s. Missiles delivered bombs instead of bomber aircrafts. Missiles could now reach areas thousands of miles away.
Launch of an SLBM from a British submarine How an MIRV works
Testing of MIRV’s: all eight (ten capable) fired from only one missile. Each line represents the path of a warhead which, if it were live, would detonate with the explosive power of twenty-five Little Boys (Bomb used on Nagasaki)
Strategic nuclear missiles, warheads and throw-weights of United States and USSR, 1964-1982 YearLaunchersWarheadsMegatonnage USAUSSRUSAUSSRUSAUSSR 19642,4163756,8005007,5001,000 19662,3964355,0005505,6001,200 19682,3601,0454,5008505,1002,300 19702,2301,6803,9001,8004,3003,100 19722,2302,0905,8002,1004,1004,000 19742,1802,3808,4002,4003,8004,200 19762,1002,3909,4003,2003,7004,500 19782,0582,3509,8005,2003,8005,400 19802,0422,49010,0006,0004,0005,700 19822,0322,49011,0008,0004,1007,100
How did the American government use propaganda to fuel the arms race?
Arms Race Clips http://www.youtube.com/w atch?v=-2kdpAGDu8s (Duck & Cover) http://www.youtube.com/w atch?v=-2kdpAGDu8s First H-bomb test http://www.youtube.com/w atch?v=NNcQX033V_M http://www.youtube.com/w atch?v=NNcQX033V_M Johnson’s Campaign Ad http://www.youtube.com/w atch?v=dDTBnsqxZ3k&featur e=related http://www.youtube.com/w atch?v=dDTBnsqxZ3k&featur e=related Dr. Seuss’ Butter Battle Book is a representation of the Arms Race.
Mutually Assured Destruction (M.A.D.) If no one could survive a nuclear war……then there would not be one. First to shoot, is second to die! Both sides saw the need for agreements on how to manage nuclear weapons: – Test-ban Treaty of 1968 – Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty of 1968 – Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty of 1972 (SALT) – Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty of 1972
End of the Arms Race Economic problems led to arms control agreements beginning in the 1970s. This period of time, known as détente. Détente: Both countries reduced their nuclear spending and stockpiles.
HOMEWORK: Sino-Soviet Relations As you know, China and the USSR developed their own forms of communism. Both remained suspicious of one another throughout the Cold War. As you know, China and the USSR developed their own forms of communism. Both remained suspicious of one another throughout the Cold War. For this assignment, you will read about Sino-Soviet relations from the establishment of the PRC in 1949 until the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. For this assignment, you will read about Sino-Soviet relations from the establishment of the PRC in 1949 until the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. As you read, complete this note packet. As you read, complete this note packet. We will not have enough time to review this in detail so it is imperative you read the entire packet, understand the information, and summarize the main points on the worksheet. We will not have enough time to review this in detail so it is imperative you read the entire packet, understand the information, and summarize the main points on the worksheet. These are your ONLY notes for this section, so please make sure to complete it accurately. These are your ONLY notes for this section, so please make sure to complete it accurately.