2Evolution Simple Definition – change over time Complicated Definition – process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms
3History of Evolution Charles Darwin Flunked out of medical school Sailed around the world on a boat called the HMS BeagleMade many observations about animals around the world and collected evidence that led him to propose his hypothesis.Birds, TortoisesConcluded that Evolution happened because of Natural Selection
4Darwin’s Observations Living Organisms and FossilsCollected and preserved fossilsNoticed that some fossils resembled organisms that were in existence and some were not like any other animal he had ever seen
5Darwin’s Observations Darwin observed 3 different types of tortoises on the Galapogas.What kinds of plants do you think the saddle tortoise might eat vs. the domed tortoise?
6Scientists who influenced Darwin James Hutton and Charles LyellTheir research showing that earth was millions of years old and that the surface/ features of earth had been changing for millions of years helped support/ develop Darwin’s crazy new idea that the appearances of animals had been changing throughout time as well.
7Who else was thinking about evolution? Jean Baptiste Lamarck
8Jean Baptiste Lamarck Disagreed with Darwin Said that Evolution happened because of TRAITS that organisms ACQUIRED during their lifetimeTheory of Use/ Disuse – proposed that by selective USE or DISUSE of structures/ organs, organisms acquired or lost traits during their lifetimeThese Acquired or Lost traits could then be passed on to the offspring
9Why Lamarck was wrong p.425 Vestigial Structures Humans have an appendix – used to be used for digestion, but now it has no real purpose in the body, but we are still born with an appendixSnakes have a pelvic bone and leg attachments in their skeletons, but they do not walk and they do not have legs – it is believed that snakes developed from crawling reptiles
11Artificial Selection vs. Natural Selection Artificial Selection – purposefully breeding organisms that have the best traitsFarmers will breed the best cows in order to get the best meat or milkNatural Selection – organisms that are most adapted to their environment will mate with each other to pass on their genes to the next generationHave the greatest fitness
13Natural SelectionDefinition – process by which traits become MORE or LESS common in a population4 principles of Natural SelectionVariation – individuals in a population are different from one anotherHeritability – variations are inherited from parentsOverproduction – populations produce more offspring than can surviveReproductive Advantage – some variations allow organisms to have more babies than others
14Survival of the Fittest Fitness – an organisms ability to survive on its own and to produce viable offspringMore fitness an organism has, the better chances it has to pass on its genes to the next generationAdaptation – any inherited characteristic that increases an organism’s chance of survival – increases its fitness
15Patterns of Natural Selection When populations change in physical characteristics due to Natural Selection, they exhibit 1 of 3 different graph distributionsDirectional Selection – 1 of the extreme traits is selected for – ex really tall people become more numerous than short peopleDisruptional Selection – Both extremes are selected FOR and the average of the 2 traits is selected AGAINST – ex really tall people and really short people become more numerous than average-height peopleStabilizing Selection – The average trait is more favorable and the extreme traits are selected against – ex in a population of short, medium and tall people, you would expect to see more medium-sized people over time
19Can you pick out the misconceptions regarding evolution? Charles Darwin developed the theory of evolution.Scientists believe in evolution.Humans evolved from monkeys.Scientists regularly debate whether evolution happens.Evolution as a science deals with the origins of life on Earth.
22HomologyStructures in different species that have a common evolutionary ancestry or a common developmental ancestry.They may or may not have the same function in both species.Can you think of some homologous structures? Remember the animals must be related.
23What in this picture shows evidence of homology?
25Analogous StructuresStructures that have the same function and might look the same, but are NOT inherited from a common ancestorEx Wings – insects and birds
26Homology or AnalogyWhales are mammals and sharks are not, yet they both have fins for swimming – are these structures Analogous or Homologous?A duckbill platypus has fur, so does a polar bear – are these structures analogous or homologous?
28What relationship exists? If a structure existed before another structure in evolutionary terms, it will also appear earlier in the embryo’s development.Species which have an evolutionary relationship typically share the early stages of embryonal development and differ in later stages.
30Evidence 3: Genetics and DNA Similarities (Molecular Evidence)
31Molecular Genetics provides direct evidence to evolution. What we know…All cells rely on DNA to make proteins.Using new technologies, biologists are able to determine the amino acid sequences in proteins to determine evolutionary relationships among various species of organisms. The more closely related two species are, the greater the similarity in amino acid sequences of their proteins.Molecular Genetics provides direct evidence to evolution.
34Paleontology is the Key The discovery of fossils showing forms of animals never previously seen.Fossils provide direct evidence of the history of evolution.Darwin saw fossils of animals that were similar to one’s that he had seen before, but weren’t exactly the same
35Evolution of HorsesHorses do not look the same as they did many years agoFossil Record shows evidence that animals have changed over time and that they share a common ancestor based on similarities in their skeletons.
43AdaptationsDefinition – trait shaped by natural selection that increases and organism’s reproductive successMore simply – a body part, body covering, or behavior that helps an organism survive its environmentType of AdaptationsAnimalsCamouflage, MimicryPlantsAntimicrobial Resistance
51Plants adapt to their environment ThornsTo stop animals from eating themThick stems and leavesTo hold waterShapeHold water, attract insectsSmellAttract and DeterBright ColorsCreative SeedsTo be carried by animals, water or wind
70Hydrotropism – growth of roots toward their water source
71Biological Resistance Antibiotics and Pesticides have been used to kill unwanted insects, bateria and fungiSome of these organisms do not die when exposed to the pesticides or antibioticsThis makes them RESISTANT. The RESISTANT organism then can pass on its genes and RESISTANCE to future generations, causing the current “POISON” to be ineffective
72Antibiotic Use Antibiotics used to be very effective However, people would stop taking the antibiotic when they started feeling better…..but, not all of the bacteria were killed….so those bacteria that lived had been exposed to the antibiotic and developed a resistance to itThe resistance was passed on to the next generations….making the antibiotic ineffectiveAlways finish a prescription that is an ANTIBIOTIC
73Patterns of Evolution Coevolution Convergent Evolution Adaptive Radiation (Divergent Evolution)Very short time – one species gives rise to many species in response to the creation of a new habitat or ecological opportunityCoevolutionDifferent species evolve in response to one anotherConvergent EvolutionUnrelated species evolve similar traits even though they are in different parts of the world
77Co-evolution – Yucca Moth and Yucca Plant Yucca flowers are a certain shape so only that tiny moth can pollinate them. The moths lay their eggs in the yucca flowers and the larvae (caterpillars) live in the developing ovary and eat yucca seeds.
78Convergent Evolution – similar noses, but different species
79Convergent Evolution – 2 different types of foxes that look similar because they both live in the desert