Changing society Growing industry. Huge growth in sizes of towns Extreme poverty More street crime and burglary Alcoholism and riots More chances for crime with rich and poor living close together Prostitution (including children) Immigrants moving into areas of poverty, many turning to crime to survive In the cities it was harder to know and keep track of people
The Tolpuddle Martyrs 1833 peaceful farm workers formed a trade union to stop their wages going down. It was against the law to swear a secret oath. Rich farmers and the government used this against the farm workers. They were arrested and transported to Australia for 7 years. Big protests led to their release in 1836. Later in the 19 th century governments improved conditions for poor people. As a result there were less protests.
The end of the ‘Bloody Code’ Reasons why the ‘Bloody Code’ was failing: Although the punishment for most crimes was death, the number of criminals actually being hung was small. The crime rate was going up People on juries often refused to find a person guilty if the punishment was death. Public executions did not scare most people: people found them entertaining. Crime was caused by growing population, poverty and industrialisation. Authorities did not have wide support from the people. Most people could not vote Times were hard There were many protests against the government. In 1823 Robert Peel reduced the number of crimes punishable by death. In 1869 public executions were banned.
Transportation ended in 1868. Australia did not need forced workers any more. Criminals could be dealt with in the new improved prison system. Many people were against transportation, saying it was too expensive. Some people thought transportation did not work because it gave criminals a new better life so it did not deter (scare) people. Other people thought it was too harsh and cruel a punishment for small crimes.
Policing before 1829: Watchmen who kept an eye on property Part-time soldiers to put down riots Constables who dealt with minor crimes and beggars Bow Street Runners, a small private force in London A few horse patrols in London to deal with highwaymen
First government run police force set up by Sir Robert Peel (the Home Secretary) in 1829. Metropolitan Police in London Peel was careful to make the police look different from the army. Their main job was to deter people from being criminals. In the next few years other cities set up police forces. At first the police were not popular but this slowly changed during the 19 th century. Police pay and training got better. Police became better at catching criminals. In 1842 the first detectives began work in London. Their job was to solve crimes. The detective department was later called the CID. Police began to use photos of suspects to help them catch criminals.
Prison reform Before the 19 th century prison was not usually a punishment. It was used to hold people before they were executed or transported. It was also used to hold people who owed money. Prisons were privately run as a business. For poor people conditions were very bad: overcrowding, disease and violence. Richer people could pay for better conditions.
Thinking about prisons began to change. Some reasons for prisons: Retribution – to punish people for doing wrong Deterrence – to put other people off doing crimes Removal – to keep criminals away from everyone else Rehabilitation – to change people for the better Restitution – to make criminals do work to pay back to society
John Howard He was High Sheriff of Bedfordshire and was shocked by conditions in the prison He travelled round Britain and Europe looking for better ideas for running prisons. His 1777 report on prisons called for Decent food Useful work Christian teaching Visits by doctors
Elizabeth Fry She was a Quaker and very religious. She visited women in Newgate Prison, London. She found women and children mixed with men and suffering extreme violence and disease. She set up education classes for women She got prisoners to vote for rules to improve their conditions Her 1825 book called for changes to prisons, especially for women and children.
Sir Robert Peel He was Home Secretary in the government. He got Parliament to pass a law –The Gaols Act 1823 – to set up a proper system of prisons run by the government. Useful work for prisoners so they could learn a trade Separate accommodation for women with female prison officers Proper inspections of prisons Uniforms Visits by doctors and chaplains Basic education Clean, separate cells
Many new prisons were built. The first was Pentonville in London Howard and Fry had wanted rehabilitation and reform. But many in the government wanted retribution and deterrence. So the system in the new prisons was harsh: Strict rules and uniforms Pointless work: the crank, the treadwheel and picking oakum The Separate System and the Silent System which led many to kill themselves.
20th century changes in policing The impact of technology Fingerprinting since 1901 Police radios since 1910 The Police National Computer since 1980 The DNA National Database Library since 1995 Cars and motorbikes CCTV security cameras since the 1970s Speed cameras Community policing Neighbourhood Watch schemes involving local people
Special police units Anti-terrorist Squad Fraud Squad Transport police Drugs squad Training and recruitment National Police Training College from 1947 Weapons More armed police Riot gear
Changing patterns of crime since 1900 The proportion of violent crime has gone down. Between the 1960s and the 1990s the crime rate went up. Since 1992 the crime rate has been going down. Why is this? Maybe because people have been generally better off Maybe because more criminals have been imprisoned However, not all crime is reported. Muggings, rapes, domestic violence and street crime are not always reported to the police. Burglary usually is reported because victims need to claim insurance.
But many people think the crime rate is going up. Why? Stories in the media Personal experiences of street crime and burglary Changing ideas of what is a crime Racist crime has become a bigger issue Conscientious objectors were treated as criminals because they refused to fight in the World Wars The law has changed to punish domestic violence New laws were made to cover traffic crime such as speeding, drink driving and use of phones while driving In 1993 the murder of Stephen Lawrenceled to an inquiry which accused the police of ‘instututional racism’ when they did not do enough to catch the murderers and treated the family badly.
New crimes or new versions of old crimes? International smuggling NEW – drugs (heroin, cocaine), cigarettes, DVDs OLD – alcohol, tobacco smuggling in the 18 th century People trafficking NEW – women and children into prostitution; people into forced labour such as farm work, building, food processing and domestic slavery OLD – female and child prostitution in the 19 th century Computer crime NEW – illegal images, illegal downloads, phishing, hacking, identity theft, money fraud and laundering OLD (before computers) – harassment, illegal images, fraud, impersonating another person
Changes in prisons The Separate System was abolished Open Prisons for less dangerous criminals and those close to release High Security prisons Probation 1949 Criminal Justice Act abolished hard labour and beatings Detention Centres for young criminals
Women prisoners Women commit less crime than men 14 women’s prisons 4 units for young women 7 mother and baby units Young prisoners 1908 prisons called Borstals for young people separate from adults The UK locks up more children than other European countries
Alternatives to prison Community sentences Drug or alcohol treatment centres Charity work Anti-social behaviour order (ASBO) Electronic tagging
The abolition of the death penalty (capital punishment) 1933 people under 18 no longer hanged 1950 Timothy Evans hanged for the murder of his wife and baby. It was later found out that another man (Christie) had killed them and five other women. 1953 Derek Bentley hanged after his friend Chris Craig shot a policeman when they were doing a robbery. He had a mental age of 11. Craig was not hanged because he was under 18. 1955 Ruth Ellis was the last woman to be hanged. She killed her boyfriend who had violently abused her. 1964 The last executions 1965 Capital punishment for murder suspended for 5 years 1969 Capital punishment for murder abolished 1999 All capital punishment abolished
Arguments for keeping capital punishment: It prevents some murders and violent crime because criminals are scared of dying A murderer late released from prison can kill again Most police and people support the death penalty After a terrible murder, only execution of the murderer can give the victim’s loved ones relief and revenge. Life imprisonment is more cruel and much more expensive
Arguments against capital punishment: Sometimes innocent people are hanged by mistake. It is wrong to kill: it is an uncivilised, barbaric punishment. The murder rate does not rise in countries without a death penalty. Juries are more likely to find murderers guilty of there is no death penalty. Most murders are not planned but happen on the spur of the moment. The fear of execution would not prevent these murders.
Conscientious objectors = people who are against fighting in a war because of their deeply held beliefs. 3 main types of CO (‘conchie’) Religious Opposed to all war because of their religious belief. For example, Christian groups like the Quakers who follow the teaching in the Bible saying ‘Do not kill’ and the advice from Jesus to ‘turn the other cheek’ when someone attacks you. Moral Pacifists who are opposed to all war because they believe it is morally wrong. They believe war never solves problems: it just creates problems that lead to another war. Political Not against all war but they object to particular wars for particular reasons. Socialists and communists might refuse to fight in wars that are protecting big companies and making them rich.
The First World War 1914-1918 This became a ‘total’ war involving the whole society. At first the army was made up of volunteers. But large numbers were killed. The Military Service Act 1916 introduced conscription: it said everyone aged 18 to 36 must fight. The Quakers objected to this. They organised meetings. Often police and members of the public broke up these meetings violently. They saw the COs as cowards and traitors. About 16,000 people refused to fight in the war because of their consciences. This made them very unpopular and they were often abused. The new law had a ‘conscience clause’ allowing people not to fight if they proved it was against their deep, honest beliefs.
Military tribunal, a court made up of army officers and other middle-class people. What the tribunal could decide: Absolute exemption. Allowed not to fight and to stay free. Usually only workers helping the war effort such as miners and farmers were excused. Conditional exemption. Free from war duties but sent to a work camp. Exemption from combatant duties. Free from fighting but helping in a war zone, maybe driving ambulances or carrying stretchers. Rejection. Very hard labour in prison and/or forced to go and fight with the threat of execution Only 400 COs were given absolute exemption.
Alternativists refused to kill or hurt anyone but were willing to risk their lives in war zones helping in other ways. Several COs won medals for bravery. But many employers refused to give them work and they were sent to work camps to crush stones. Absolutists believed the war was so wrong that they refused to do anything to help the war. They were treated as criminals and sent to prison. Prison warders treated them very badly. Some were taken to France, forced into uniform and told to fight or they would be killed.
10 COs died in prison; 63 died shortly after release. 3 had mental breakdowns. After the war they were not allowed to vote for 5 years. Many could never get jobs; some were beaten up.
The Second World War 1939-1945 Conscription came in at the very beginning of the war. But attitudes were different and COs had an easier time. The horrors of the First War had made many people agree with or understand pacifists. Warfare had changed and relied more on machines and technology. The war needed better trained soldiers and did not need so many men. Britain was fighting against Hitler’s Germany and most people believed they were fighting against evil: fighting for freedom and the right to choose. Many people felt that if Britain was fighting for freedom of conscience then conscientious objectors had to be accepted. Other people still saw COs as cowards and traitors, especially as the enemy was seen as evil.
The tribunals were different: no military officers and people from all classes. Over 59,000 people claimed exemption. 47.000 of these were given absolute or partial exemption. Most of them cooperated with the authorities, working in factories or on the land. Some did dangerous jobs in the war zone, driving ambulances or doing bomb disposal. Absolutists joined the Peace Pledge Union who tried to encourage people not to fight. They refused to do any activity linked to the war. Usually they were not sent to prison. They were even allowed to put up posters. However, many ordinary people still saw them as cowards and traitors. Some were attacked or sacked from their jobs. But mostly they did not suffer as badly as in the First World War.