2Ever wonder???“Are people born wicked or is wickedness thrust upon them?”~Galindafrom Broadway musical Wicked
3Criminologists Criminologists search for answers to Criminally inspired questions.Why does a person commit a crime?What causes crime and deviance?Are people basically good?Why are some people violent and aggressive?Are people motivated only by self-interest?
4CriminologyA science that studies criminals and seeks to find the causeof crime and deviant behavior.Crime—violation of the criminal law for whichthere is no legal justification.Deviance—violation of social norms that specifyappropriate or proper behavior under aparticular set of circumstances (often includescrime).
5Categories of Theory Explanations of criminal behavior fall into 8 general categories.ClassicalBiologicalPsychobiologicalPsychologicalSociologicalSocial ProcessConflictEmergentInterdisciplinary, or integrated, theories couldpossibly be a ninth category.
7Characteristics Basic Assumptions Crime is caused by the individual exercise of “free will.”Pain and pleasure are the two central determinants of human behavior.Punishment is sometimes required to deter law violators.Crime prevention = swift and certain punishment
8Cesare Beccaria: Crime and Punishment In 1784, Beccaria published Essays onCrimes and Punishment. Beccaria:Was considered controversial at the time.Felt punishments should be more humanitarian.Called for the end of physical punishment and the death penalty.Posited that punishment needs to be:CertainSwiftSevereBelieved that punishment should fit the crime and not be excessive.
9Jeremy Bentham’s Hedonistic Calculus Concept developed by Jeremy Bentham (1748–1832)People make “free will” decisions to commit crime by weighing of advantages versus disadvantages of action. If advantages outweigh disadvantages, then a person will likely commit crime.To deter people from committing crime, the punishment/disadvantages need(s) to outweigh the rewards/advantages.Bentham called this philosophy utilitarianism.
10The Neoclassical Perspective Neoclassical criminology is rooted in the classical school.Emphasizes deterrence and retributionIndividuals use free will to decide to conform or commit crimePlaces greater emphasis on rationality and cognition than classical criminologistsExamples:Rational choice theoryRoutine activities theory
11The Neoclassical Perspective Rational choice theory = criminality is the result of conscious choice.Individuals commit crime when the benefits outweigh the costsLifestyles contribute to the volume and type of crime found in societyMotivated offender + a suitable target - a capable guardian = Criminal Act
13Characteristics of Biological Theories Basic AssumptionsHuman behavior is genetically determined.Basic determinants of human behavior may be passed from generation to generation.Some behavior is the result of mutation in genetic evolutionary process.
14Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828): Phrenology Phrenology, study of the shape of the head and its relationship to human behavior, focused on the head and brain in what Gall called “crainioscopy.”The brain is the organ of the mind.The brain consists of localized faculties orfunctions.The shape of the skull reveals underlyingdevelopment (or lack of development) ofareas within the brain.A personality can be revealed by a study ofthe skull.
15Cesare Lombroso (1835-1909): Atavism Lombroso—the founder of the Positivist School of criminology. In his work, he:borrowed the term “atavism” from thework of Charles Darwin.“Atavism” implies that people are borncriminalscharacterized by features thought to be common in earlier stages of human evolution.Examples of stigmata: long arms, largelips, crooked nose, large amount ofbody hair, eyes of different colors,ears lack defined lobes, etc…
16Atavism really??? In 1913, Charles Goring and Karl Pearson: compared 3,000 English convicts to armyofficersfound NO significant differences between thetwo groups using Lombroso’s criteriaIn 1939, Ernest Hooten:compared 13,000 male prisoners in 10 states to3,000 National Guard members, firemen, etc.found some support for Lombroso’s ideas,though his methods may have been flawed
17Criminal Families Is it all in our heads??? In 1877, Richard Dugdale studied the Juke family.Over 75 years, the heirs of Ada Juke included1,200 persons, mostly social degenerates.Goddard (1912) studied two lines of the Kallikakfamily.One line descended from a feebleminded barmaid.Over half of these descendants were feebleminded.The second line descended from a “virtuousQuaker girl.”1/3 of these descendants were feebleminded.
18William Sheldon (1893 – 1977): Somatypes Somatotyping—classifying people according to body build.Mesomorph—predominance of muscle, bone, andconnective tissueEctomorph—thinness, fragility, and delicacy ofbodyEndomorph—soft roundness throughout shorttapering limbs, small bones, soft velvety skinEach body type has a characteristic personality, and mesomorphs were most prone to aggression, violence, and delinquency.
20Characteristics of Psychobiological Theories Basic AssumptionsFocus is on the relationship of the following tocriminal behavior:DNAenvironmental contaminantsnutritionhormonesphysical traumabody chemistry in human cognition and behavior
21Chromosome Theory First explored in the 1960s. 1965—Patricia Jacobs discovered “supermales,” men with an extra “Y” chromosome (XYY). She found that “supermales” were more common in prisons than in the general public.Other studies found that XYY males were more aggressive than other males and had a number of specific physical and psychological traits.Later studies disputed many of these findings.
22Biochemical Factors and Imbalances Biocriminology attempts to link violent or disruptive behavior to eating habits, vitamin deficiencies, genetics, inheritance, and other conditions which impact body tissues.For example, some studies have linked crime to:HypoglycemiaAllergic reactions to foodsHigh levels of caffeine and sugarTestosterone levelsLow levels of certain neurotransmittersA malfunctioning endocrine system
23Heredity and Other Physical Factors Adoption and twin studies have shown:Children adopted at birth have shown a tendency toward criminality of biological parents.Identical twins separated at birth indicate that they exhibit a greater similarity in terms of criminality than do fraternal twins, who exhibit greater similarities than ordinary siblings.Wilson and Herrnstein (1985) argue thatinherited traits combine with environmentalfactors to produce crime.
25Characteristics of Psychological Theories Basic AssumptionsThe individual is the main unit of analysis.Personality is the major motivational element.Crimes result from inappropriately conditioned behavior.Abnormal mental processes may have a number of causes.Diseased mindInappropriate learningImproper conditioning
26Behavioral Conditioning Behavioral conditioning is a psychologicalprinciple which holds that the frequency of anybehavior can be increased or decreased throughreward, punishment, and/or association withother stimuli.This was popularized through the work of IvanPavlov (1849–1936) whose work with dogs wonhim a Nobel Prize.
27Freudian Psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud (1856–1939) identified threeelements of the personality:IdEgoSuperegoPsychoanalysis sees personality as a complexcomposite of interacting mental elements.Crime can result from:A weak superegoSublimation/dislike of one’s motherThe death wish
28Psychopathology and Crime Psychopathology studies pathological mentalconditions (mental illness).Psychopath—a person with a personalitydisorder, especially manifested in aggressivelyantisocial behavior, which is often said to bethe result of a poorly developed superego.It is possible for the psychopath to inflict painwithout appreciation for the victim’s suffering.Psychopathic people are likely to becomecriminal at some point.
29The Psychotic Offender Psychosis is another form of mental disorder.Psychotics are people who are said to be out oftouch with reality.Some psychotics are classified asschizophrenic—people with disordered ordisjointed thinking in which they makeabnormal logical connections between things.Psychosis can lead to crime.
31Characteristics of Sociological Theories Basic AssumptionsSocial groups, social institutions, the arrangement of society, and social roles are all appropriate for study.Group dynamics, group organization, and subgroup relationships form the causal basis of criminality.The structure of society and the relative degree of social organization or social disorganization are important factors contributing to criminal behavior.
32Social Ecology Theory Shaw and McKay related this theory to crime. In the 1920s, Park and Burgess mapped Chicagobased on the city’s social characteristics. Theydeveloped the Concentric Zone Theory.Concentric zones are likened to a bull’s eye with the center of the city being the target.Shaw and McKay related this theory to crime.Crime increased as one moved towards center of the city, with the highest crime rates in the “zone of transition,” where there was a lot of poverty, illiteracy, lack of schooling, unemployment, and illegitimacy (social disorganization).Social disorganization leads to crime.
33Anomie Theory Emile Durkheim (1858–1917) introduced the term anomie (normlessness) in the late 1800s.Robert K. Merton (1910–2003) defined anomie as adisjuncture between societal goals and legitimatemeans. He developed a typology of adaptations:Conformist—accepts goals and means (law abiding)Innovator—accepts goals, rejects means (property/white-collar offenses)Retreatest—rejects both goals and means (addiction/victimless crimes)Ritualist—rejects goals, accepts means (repetitive/mundane lifestyle)Rebel—rejects goals and means and substitutes his own goals and means (political crime)
34Subcultural TheoryCohen (b. 1918)—reaction formation, lower class youth’s rejection of middle class values, leads to the development of gangs and reinforces the subculture.Miller—Lower class priority concerns of trouble, toughness, excitement, smartness, fate, and autonomy lead to crime.
35Subcultural TheoryCloward and Ohlin proposed that an illegitimate opportunity structure allows delinquent youths to achieve success outside of legitimate ways.Wolfgang and Ferracuti coined the term “subculture of violence” after examining homicide rates in Philadelphia in the 1950s.Here, violence is a traditional, and often accepted, method of dispute resolution.
37Characteristics of Social Process Theories Basic AssumptionsThey highlight the role played by weakened self-esteem and the lack of meaningful social roles in crime causation.Relationship of individual to social group is stressed as underlying cause of behavior.
38Differential Association Edwin Sutherland ( ), in his thirdedition of Principles of Criminology (1939),viewed crime as a product of socialization.Crime is learned. It is learned by the same principles that guide learning of law abiding behavior of conformists.
39Principles of Differential Association Criminal behavior is learned.Criminal behavior is learned in interaction with other persons in a process of communication.The principle part of the learning of criminal behavior occurs within intimate personal groups.When criminal behavior is learned, it includes a) techniques of committing the crime, and b) the specific direction of motives, drives, rationalizations, and attitudes.The specific direction of motives and drives is learned from definitions of the legal codes as favorable or unfavorable.A person becomes delinquent because of an excess of definitions favorable to violations of the law over definitions unfavorable to violations of the law.Differential associations may vary in frequency, duration, priority, and intensity.The process of learning criminal behavior by association with criminal and anticriminal patterns involves all the mechanisms that are involved in any other learning.While criminal behavior is an expression of general needs and values, it is not explained by those general needs and values since noncriminal behavior is an expression of those same needs and values.
40Social Process Theories Social Learning Theory:… a perspective that says people learn how to behave from others whom they have the opportunity to observe.
41Social Learning Theory Ronald L. Akers and Robert L. Burgess appliedlearning theory constructs to the theory ofdifferential association. Their theory ofdifferential reinforcement is called sociallearning theory.Primary learning takes place through operant conditioning.People learn how to behave by modeling themselves after other whom they have the opportunity to observe.
42Restraint Theories Restraint theories focus on Constraints—those forces that keeppeople from committing crimes.Contrasts other theories that look to why people commit crimes.
43Containment Theory One restraint theory, offered by Walter Reckless ( ) is containment theory.Containment—aspects of social bond andpersonality that prevent individuals fromcommitting crime. There are two types:1. Outer—elements outside of individual (friends, law, family, social position) control behavior.2. Inner—those elements psychological in nature (conscience, positive self-image, tolerance) control behavior.
44Social Control Theory Travis Hirschi in Causes of Delinquency (1969) wrote that the stronger one’s social bond theless likely the individual would engage indelinquency.Elements of the social bond include:Attachment (to others)Commitment (to appropriate lifestyles)Involvement (in conventional values)Belief (in correctness of rules of society)
45Techniques of Neutralization In Techniques of Neutralization (1957),Gresham Sykes and David Matza put forth alist of escalating techniques of neutralizationthat allow a person to commit a delinquent act.The techniques are:Denial of responsibilityDenial of injuryDenial of victimCondemnation of condemnersAppeal to higher loyalties
46Labeling Theory Labeling theory sees continued crime as a consequence of the limited opportunities foracceptable behavior that follow from the negativeresponses of society for those defined as offenders.In 1963, Howard Becker suggested that:Criminality is not a quality inherent in the act or the person.Crime results from social definition through law of unacceptable behavior.Deviance is “created” by society.
47The Life Course Perspective Social development theories represent anintegrated view of human development that pointsto the process of interaction among and betweenindividuals and society as the root cause ofcriminal behavior.An example, put forth in 1993 by Sampson andLaub, is the life course perspective. Crime is linkedto turning points in one’s life.Turning points are transitional periods during which one can either walk toward or away from crime.
49Characteristics of Conflict Theory Conflict perspective: maintains that crime is the natural consequence of economic and other social inequities. Key elements of this perspective are:Society is composed of diverse social groups, and diversity is based upon distinctions which people hold to be significant.Conflict among groups is unavoidable because of differing interests and differing values.The nature of group conflict centers on exercise of political power.Laws are tools of power that further the interests of the lawmakers.
50Radical Criminology Radical criminology sees crime as produced by the unequal distribution of wealth, power, and otherresources.Poverty and discrimination leads to frustration and pent-up hostilities expressed through crime.Karl Marx (1818–1883) assumed lower classesare always exploited by the “owners” of the meansof production.Working class suffers under the consequences of a “false class consciousness”–the poor are trained to believe that capitalism is in their best interest.
51Peacemaking Criminology Peacemaking criminology holds that crime control agencies and the citizens they serve should work together to alleviate social problems and human suffering, and thereby reduce the amount of crime.Rooted in Christian and eastern philosophies.Referred to as “compassionate criminology.”Suggests that social control must also focus on victims and victimization.Popularized by the work of Richard Quinney and Hal Pepinsky.
52Emergent Theories New and Developing Perspectives
53Feminist Criminology Feminist criminology emphasizes gender issues in criminology and seeks to developgreater appreciation of the role of women incrime causation, victimization, and crime control.Rita Simon—Women and Crime (1975) and Freda Adler—Sisters in Crime (1975)Attempts to explain differences in rates of crime for women and men as due primarily to socialization rather than biologyKathleen Daly and Meda Chesney-LindEmphasizes need for a “gender-aware” criminologyGender—the central organizing principle
54Constitutive Criminology Constitutive criminology studies the process bywhich people create an ideology of crime thatsustains the notion of crime as a concrete reality.George Herbert Mead’s symbolic interaction theoryWilliam ThomasAn act’s significance depends on the intentions behind it and the situation in which it is interpreted.Stuart Henry and Dragan MilovanovicPeople shape their world while also being shaped by it.
55Postmodern Criminology Postmodern criminology includes a wide variety of recent, novel perspectives of crime that build upon the belief that past approaches fail to realistically assess the true causes of crime and provide workable solutions to crime. Examples:Chaos analysisDiscourse analysisTopology theoryCritical theoryRealist criminologyConstitutive theoryAnarchic criminology