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More Crime and Less Punishment. Background Information --Alcatraz Jury systemAlcatrazJury system Warming-up Discussion ---expressions of lawexpressions.

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Presentation on theme: "More Crime and Less Punishment. Background Information --Alcatraz Jury systemAlcatrazJury system Warming-up Discussion ---expressions of lawexpressions."— Presentation transcript:

1 More Crime and Less Punishment

2 Background Information --Alcatraz Jury systemAlcatrazJury system Warming-up Discussion ---expressions of lawexpressions of law ---root of crimeroot of crime Word-Study Pre-Reading

3 (1) Statistical Information (2) Analogy Analogy is the comparison of two unlike things for the purpose of illustration. The comparison is possible because the two things have something in common. (3) Rhetorical Questions (4) Selective Use of Repetition Teaching Focus

4  a criminologist  an expert on the insanity defense, capital punishment, and the history of the electric chair.  write articles for the Washington Post, New York Times, and Newsweek.  Richard Moran

5 approve Synonyms endorse/sanction accredit  approve of sth/sb  I knew my parents wouldn't approve of what I had done.  He gave me an approval nod.

6 1 债券 gamble in stocks and bonds. 2 联系 flesh-and-blood bond 3 粘贴 Those plastics will not bond together. bond (n/v)

7 His speech is an important contribution to the debate. All contributions to the conference are expected to arrive by the end of July. He contributed an article to the Liberation Daily. Word Formation attribute / distribute contribution

8 to find or prove (someone) guilty of an offense or crime (经审讯)证 明有罪;宣判有罪;使伏罪 The jury convicted the defendant of man slaughter. convict deter discourage, prevent 别让失败拖你后腿. Do not let failure deter you.

9 elite (adj./n. ): best, top, 杰出的,卓越的; Example: an elite engineer the football team's elite the elite of coffee the scientific elite elite (adj./n.)

10 a first offense an offense against the state He did not mean to offend anybody with his joke. offensive behavior / remark offense Word Formation offend (v.) offensive (adj.) Example:

11 这项任务比所有其他任务都重要. This task is prior to all others. 合同将在仪式举行之前签字. The contract will be signed prior to the ceremony. prior to prosecute to initiate civil or criminal court action against 对 … 提起公诉 prosecute a crime prosecute sb. for sth.

12 reject 拒绝,驳回。语气最重,表示对某 事不予接受,不予理会。与 refuse 相比, 该词更侧重于做出拒绝决定的客观因素。 而 refuse 更加侧重于主观因素。 decline 指较有礼貌地谢绝。 refuse 表示拒绝,推辞。语气比 decline 重,态度较坚定 reject Word Formation decline/refuse (v.)

13 1 I'll make him an offer he can't ____. 2 The army doctors__ several recruits as unfit. 3 We asked her to come to our party, but she ___ the invitation.

14 It provides statistical information and analyzes the present situation to show that punishment does not deter crime. Purpose of the Essay Language and Style (1) serious and formal (2) long sentences with complicated structure and few contraction ( 停顿 )

15 Ⅰ Text structure Part one Part Two Para Para The introduction: punishment does not reduce crime. Why punishment doesn’t deter crime Conclusion: getting tough with criminals is not the answer to the crime problem. Part Three Para 10.

16 Language Points While-Reading

17 1. What is the main idea in paragraph 1? Do you think the crime problem is serious in U.S.? Why? Language Points

18 Example: When he started to argue, I got tough with him. be tough on The new mayor intends to be tough on crime. take a tough stance/stand We must take a tough stance against terrorism. tough luck: bad luck Tough luck about your job! I hope you’ll find another one soon. 1 get tough with 对 … 强硬

19 illegal act The best estimates suggest that million people have arrest records for non-traffic offenses. 警察局笔录 2 amount to 总计达到 Example: 票房总收入达到一个亿 Box-office receipts amounted to 100,000,000.

20 Euphemism: improve one’s behavior under the control for punishment lock up We already have ….under some form of correctional supervision, 412,000 of them locked away in a prison cell.

21 那个教授是我的导师. 在他的指导下,我完成了作业. 3 supervise Word Formation supervisor (v.) supervision (n.) Example: 4 lock away 1.to put something in a place lock away your jewelry 2.to put someone in a prison, After murder, he was locked away for 50 yeas.

22 This is why the certainty and severity of punishment must go down when the crime rate goes up. even though all crimes are punished tend to

23 只有有钱人才能帮他们。 6 afford to Example: 7 give out 1.to announce 宣布 2.to hand out 3. to distribute

24 真题搜索  Every chemical change either results from energy being used to produce the change, or causes energy to be ____ in some form. ( 考研, 1997) A. given off B. put out C. set off D. used up  The student was just about to ____ the question, when suddenly he found the answer. (CET-4, 1996,6) A. arrive at B. submit to C. give up D. work out  ____ enough time and money, the researchers would have been able to discover more in this field.(TEM-4,1998) A. Giving B. To give C. Given D. Being given 8 give

25 真题搜索  I was speaking to Ann on the phone when suddenly we were ____. ( 考研, 1996) A. hung up B. hung back C. cut down D. cut off  Jack was about to announce our plan but I ____. (CET-6,1997,6) A. put him through B. turned him out C. give him up D. cut him short  When the whole area was ____ by the flood, the government sent food there by helicopter. (CET-4, 1996,1) A. cut away B. cut down C. cut up D. cut off 9 cut off

26 A decade of careful research has failed to provide clear and convincing evidence [ that the threat of punishment reduces crime ]. appositional clause You must let me have the annual report without____ by ten o’clock tomorrow morning. (TEM ) A. failure B. hesitation C. trouble D. fail paragraph 3 真题搜索

27 8 the other way around Example: 不是他要和他妻子离婚,事实正好相反. He did not divorce his wife. It was the other way around.

28 Is it easy for a student to gain admission to a college? Is it easy for a student to gain admission to the best university? Is it easy for a prisoner to gain admission to a prison? Questions for para.4

29 High school graduates criminals easier to be admitted into the college difficult to be jailed into the prison The number of Paragraph 4

30 怎么才能进入白宫呢 ? How does one gain admission to the White House? 9 gain admission to: gain access to Example: 10 exclusive 专有的 ; 排他的;高级的 This bathroom is for your exclusive use. The 2 beliefs are mutually exclusive. 11 crop: a group of people the current crop of graduates

31 1 Our current crop of prisoners is an elite group. 2 Suppose you planned an outing on a certain day, expecting it to be fine; but when the day came it was raining heavily. If you said, “What fine weather for an outing!” Irony It is use of words which are clearly opposite to what is meant, in order to achieve a special effect Example:

32 What does “these features” refer to? 1 Crime problem is serious. 2 Not every prisoner can gain admission to prison. Questions for para.5

33 起这么早没什么用。 / 他的推理没有意义. 12 make sense: to be practical; wise Example: They tossed your thoughts back and forth for over an hour, but still could not make ____ of them. (CET-6, 1997,1) A. impression B. comprehension C. meaning D. sense 真题搜索

34 T-bag: Why don't you transfer us all to someplace cooler... like Africa? Geary: Get your ass on the line, convict. 14 convict (n): a gulity person Example: convict (v): 宣判有罪 陪审团判决被告犯有偷窃和纵火罪。 The jury convicted the accused man of theft and arson.

35 Without telephone it would be impossible to carry on the function of ____ every business operation in the whole country. ( 考研, 1998) A. practically B. preferably C. precisely D. presumably 真题搜索 15 practical A 是 “ 几乎 ” 。 B 是 “ 更可取地 ” ; C 是 “ 精确地 ” ; D 是 “ 可能地 ” 。

36 The criminal justice system must then become as powerless as a parent [who has charge of hundreds of teenage children and who is nonetheless expected to answer the TV message.] find their children through TV controlstill/but

37 Money one-way charge system 接听免费 of crime a murder charge 16 charge (n/v) Example:

38 Generous public funding of basic science would ____ considerable benefits for the country’s health, wealth and security. (CET- 4,1999,1) A. lead to B. result from C. lie in D. settle down 真题搜索 17 lead to

39 Owing to the rain , they could not come Owing to a traffic hold-up , I missed my flight The project fell through because of poor planning . The university faced a cost overrun on account of miscalculation . due to (adj.) owing to (prep.) because of (prep.) on account of (prep.) Example:

40 The school authorities are too easy on cheating. 18 be easy on: not severe Example: 19 make room for: leave empty space for Many old houses have been knocked down to make room for new apartment buildings.

41 Yet when measured against the lower crime rates [this would probably produce,] longer prison sentences are not worth the cost[ to state and local governments.] judge sth. by comparing Paragraph 7 Example: He measures his work against the best CEOs in the country. When measured against the world’s advanced level, our production costs are high.

42 If (this is) true, this will cause us a lot of trouble. 时间状语从句中的省略 Example: 从句中的主语和主句中的主语一致,就可以经 过一定的变动把状语从句中的主语和谓语的一 部分或全部省略,从而使语言更加简洁明了.

43 to make a total amount of sth, add up to, The total cost of the project worked out to 10 million. para. 19 work out to Example:

44 Sometimes my friend goes to the library so as to borrow books. Tomorrow my father will go to Beijing so as to see his old friend. so as to 以便 ; 为了 para.10 Example: so ……as to 那么的 … 以至于 The girl was so excited as to shout herself hoarse. He was so tired as to be unable to walk.

45 Teaching Focus Summary Homework After-Reading

46 (1) Statistical Information (2) Analogy Analogy is the comparison of two unlike things for the purpose of illustration. The comparison is possible because the two things have something in common. (3) Rhetorical Questions (4) Selective Use of Repetition Teaching Focus

47 (1) Irony and Analogy Give an example for each of them. (2) Explain the following expressions with examples: make room for make sense work out to amount to measure sth./sb against sth./sb Homework

48 summary (3) figures of speech irony/ euphemism/ contrast (4) Rhetorical Questions Questions that do not expect answer but express a strong feeling, opinion or impression. Can we send them to prison? Can we execute more than 22,000 murderers?


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