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1 Planning Written and Spoken Messages Chapter 4 Lecture Slides.

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1 1 Planning Written and Spoken Messages Chapter 4 Lecture Slides

2 2 Learning Objective 1 Identify the purposes and type of message 1

3 3 Planning Written and Spoken Messages Deter- mine the purpose and select the channel Envision the audience Consider the context Choose a channel and the medium Adapt the message to audience needs and concerns Organize the message Prepare the first draft

4 4 The Purpose of the Message To Inform To Persuade To Convey Goodwill To Establish Credibility 1

5 5 Determine the Type of Message Good news messages: positive news, messages of appreciation or thank- you notes Neutral messages: routine messages, requests and claims, customer orders and credit, procedures Bad news messages: refusals of requests and claims, denials of credit, and problems with customer orders Persuasive messages: sales messages and persuasive requests 1

6 6 What do you hope to accomplish with the message? Get information Answer a question Accept an offer Deny a request Seek support for or sell a product or idea Apologize 1 PURPOSE

7 7 Communicate Ethically & Responsibly State information as truthfully and fairly as possible Do not exaggerate facts Express ideas understandably Support viewpoint with facts State ideas with consideration that preserves receiver’s self- worth Design honest graphics 1

8 8 Learning Objective 2 Develop clear perceptions of the audience to enhance the impact of the communication and human relations. 2

9 9 Envision the Audience Age Economic level Education and work background Needs and concerns Culture Rapport Expectations What should you learn about your audience? 2

10 10 Types of Workplace Audiences Managerial: look for the “big picture” and tend to ignore details Non-expert: know little about a subject and need more details Expert: know as much about the topic as you do International/multicultural: may not speak English as a first language and may have differing cultural interpretations of symbols and behaviors Mixed: all of the above 2

11 11 Audience Perceptions Previous experiences Attitude toward sender and ourselves Attitude toward subject Experience with channel, especially in electronic communication Audience perception is colored by: 2

12 12 Learning Objective 3 Consider the context of the message and any environmental influences that may affect its delivery. 3

13 13 Step 3: Consider the Context CONTEXTUAL DIMENSIONS 3 Physical Context Social Context Chronological Context Cultural Context

14 14 Physical Context How would these settings would change an interaction? Office Hallway Company Picnic Mall 3 Setting can influence the content and quality of interactions

15 15 Social Context How would these types of relationships change an interaction: Friendly Cordial Contentious 3 The nature of the relationship between communicators

16 16 Chronological Context The ways time influences interaction s 3

17 17 Cultural Context Includes the organizational culture as well as the cultural backgrounds of individual members. 3

18 18 Consider Organizational Culture Communication flow in company Cultural background of employees Successful message Corporate Structure People or team oriented Financial status Policies and Programs 3

19 19 Remember This! Organizational Culture: a system of shared meanings and practices held by members that distinguish the organization from other organizations. 3

20 20 Learning Objective 4 Determine the appropriate channel and media for communicating the message. 4

21 21 Things to Consider When Considering Channel and Media Richness vs. leanness Need for interpretation (ambiguity) Speed of establishing contact Time required for feedback Cost Amount of information conveyed Permanent record Control over the message 4

22 22 Two-Way, Face to Face Communication Vocal cues Facial expressions Bodily movement Bodily appearance Use of space Touching Clothing Use of time Provides Provides rich source of information through: 4 BENEFITS

23 23 Two-Way, Face-To-Face IN PERSON TRADITIONAL GROUP MEETING VIDEO OR TELECONFERENCE

24 24 Two-Way, Not Face-To-Face TELEPHONE CALL VOICE MAIL MESSAGE ELECTRONIC MAIL INSTANT MESSAGING 4

25 25 One Way, Not Face-To-Face LETTER or MEMO REPORT or PROPOSAL WEB PAGE or BLOG TEXT MESSAGING 4

26 26 Learning Objective 5 Apply techniques for adapting messages to the audience. 5

27 27 Focus on Receiver’s View Point “Me” Attitude “You” Attitude I want to congratulate you on your award. Congratulations! You are the Employee of the Year. I am interested in ordering... Please send me... (You is the understood subject.) I give you permission to take an extra day of vacation. You earned an extra day of vacation because of your performance. 5

28 28 Cultivate a “You” Attitude Address the receiver’s needs and concerns Keep the receiver clearly in the picture Present fair, logical, and ethical ideas Express ideas clearly and concisely Promote a positive business relationship Send messages promptly to indicate courtesy Reflect professional business standards 5

29 29 Presenting the “You” Attitude 1.Poor: You failed to enclose your receipts for reimbursements. Better: The reimbursement report you sent to accounting did not contain your receipts. 2.Poor: Your contract tells you plainly that. Better: I am glad to explain more fully the contract terms. 5

30 30 Learning Objective 6 Recognize the importance of organizing a message before writing the first draft and select the appropriate message outline (deductive or inductive) for developing messages to achieve the desired response. 6

31 31 Select an Outline for Written and Spoken Messages 6

32 32 Benefits to Outlining Sender Oriented Encourages accuracy and brevity Permits concentration on one phase at a time Saves time in structuring ideas Provides a psychological lift Facilitates emphasis and de- emphasis 6

33 33 Benefits to Outlining Receiver Oriented Message is more concise and accurate Ideas are easier to distinguish and remember Reaction to message more likely positive

34 34 Selecting an Outline Deductive Sequence: Inductive Sequence: 6 when a message begins with the major idea when a message withholds the major idea until accompanying details and explanations have been presented

35 35 Receiver Reaction = Outline Order Deductive Order (main idea first) Message will please the receiver Message is routine (will not please or displease) Inductive Order (details first) Message will displease the receiver Receiver may not be interested (will need to be persuaded) 6

36 36 Learning Objective 7 Prepare the first draft. 7

37 37 Get Ready to Write Message type and purpose Logical Sequence Begin composing message Channel and medium Context of message Audience needs & perspective Inductive or deductive 7


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