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More Crime and Less Punishment Richard Moran Lesson 3.

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Presentation on theme: "More Crime and Less Punishment Richard Moran Lesson 3."— Presentation transcript:

1 More Crime and Less Punishment Richard Moran Lesson 3

2 Background information AAbout the author RRichard Moran aa criminologist and a leading expert on the insanity defense, capital punishment, and the history of the electric chair. MMoran has also written articles for the Washington Post, Christian Science Monitor, New York Times, and Newsweek.

3 Warm-up 11. What do you now about justice system in America? 22. What is the guiding principle in criminal court in America? 33. What are the advantages and disadvantages of the principle? 44. What expressions do you know about crime, law and court?

4 Jury system  The Jury trial is an important component in the judicial system. The jury consists of 12 jurors, selected at random, which will, after hearing all the evidence and cross-examination, give a verdict of guilty or innocent. Then, the judge will pass sentence.

5 Guiding Principle  In many jurisdictions, the majority of a jury is not sufficient to find a defendant guilty, all 12 members must agree to the person ’ s guilt.  1. What do you now about jury system in America?

6 Guiding principle  The court must prove the accused person ’ s guilt beyond a reasonable doubt. In other words, the accused is held innocent until proved guilty.  2. What is the guiding principle in criminal court in America?

7  (advantage) In theory, the concept makes sure that a case is not misjudged and that an innocent person is not unjustly treated.  (disadvantage) However, in other cases, this may help criminals to escape punishment for his lawyer can always raise a reasonable doubt concerning the evidence or the trustworthiness of the witnesses.  Also, collecting evidence and having a trial or even summon a jury cost a lot of money.

8 Expressions related to crime, law and court  Correctional personnel  parole  crime rate  arrest record  property crime  to prosecute sb  to imprison/jail a criminal  to execute a murderer

9  Parole: permission that is given to a prisoner to leave prison before the end of their sentence on condition that they behave well.  E.g. she was released on parole.  She was paroled after two years.

10  To prosecute sb (for sth/doing sth):  To officially charge sb with a crime in a court of law  E.g. Trespassers will be prosecuted.  闲人莫入,伪者必究

11 Text Analysis  Part I (para.1-3)  Introduction of the central idea: punishment does not reduce crime  Part II (para. 4-9)  Why punishment doesn't deter crime.  Part III (para. 10)  Conclusion: getting tough with criminals is not the answer to the crime problem.

12 Part I Text analysis — Para 1 The best estimates suggest that 36 to 40 million people have arrest records for nontraffic offenses. (para.1)  Paraphrase the sentence. We already have 2.4 million people under some form of correctional supervision. ( para.1 )  What is meant by ‘ under some form of correctional supervision ” ?

13 Correctional supervision  Supervision  Supervisor  Euphemism

14 Para 2  Read through the paragraph;  Please find out the words to show contrast in this paragraph;  Please describe to your partner what those contrasts are.

15 Para 2  This is why at present moment not all crimes are punished and punishment for crime is less severe than before though the crime rate is on the increase.  Can you recall the original sentence in our text book?

16 Para 3  We think that punishment deters crime, but it just might be the other way around. (Para. 3)  Paraphrase the sentence with the help of the following explanation:

17 Deter  To discourage, check or prevent sth. through the threat of sth. unpleasant.  E.g. A heavy fine alone won ’ t deter shoplifting.  The rain didn't deter people from coming to the game.  The university enforces severe punishment to deter cheating in exams.

18 TThe other way around/round: TThe opposite situation. TThe theft did not shoot the policeman. It was the other way round. WWhat is the relationship between crime and punishment in your eye?

19 Part II  1) Just as the decline in the number of high-school graduates … made it more difficult to get into prison. (para.4)  What are being compared in this sentence?

20 Comparison between a prison and a college (Para 4)  Your opinion?

21 Comparison between a prison and a college (para 4)  Similarities:  Purpose: education  Living situation: collective living; high population density  Discipline: strict  Enrollment (difficult to get in)  High wall (symbol for no freedom; limited rights)  Under control by government  Important department of the nation who send out financial aid every now and then  Human resources distribution (classes, ranks)  Elite persons go to elite college/prison

22 difference  Payment  Willingness/motivation  Quality of people  Gender Both male and female  Content of education / correction  Reputation  Paper examinations

23  2 ) While elite colleges and universities still have high standards of admissions, some of the more “ exclusive ” prisons now require about five prior serious crimes before an inmate is accepted into their correctional program. (para. 4)  Define “ elite colleges ”, “ exclusive prisons ”, and “ prior serious crimes ”.

24 Exclusive 11limited to only one person or group of people: TThis room is for the exclusive use of guests. eexclusive agency ( 独家代理 ) 22expensive and only for people who are rich or of a high social class: aan exclusive private club aan apartment in an exclusive part of town

25 What makes an elite college  Graduates  Faculties  Facilities  History  Culture and spirit  Natural environment  Positive circulation  Academic  Comprehensive (subjects; wide range)  Financial ability  Scale

26  3 ) Our current crop of prisoners is an elite group …. (para.4)  Paraphrase the sentence.  4) Yet when measured against the lower crime rates … are not worth the cost to state and local governments. (para.7)  Explain the first part of the sentence.

27  5) Besides, those states that have tried to gain voters ’ approval for bonds to build new prisons often discover …. (para.7)  What does “ bonds ” mean here? What do the bonds have to do with the voters ’ approval?

28  8) The first-year operation cost would be … worth it if the victim were you or me, but much too expensive to be feasible as a national policy. (para. 9)  Why worth it if we were the victims, but no feasible as a national policy?

29  6) While it is not possible to know the true amount of crime committed by people released from prison in any given year, … (para. 8)  Explain the use of “ while ” and the meaning of the word “ given ” here.  7) … this would amount to only 15,000 crimes prevented: a drop in the bucket when measured against the 41 million crimes committed each year. (para. 8)  Paraphrase the sentence.

30 Part III  What is the conclusion of the author?

31 Writing skills  A. Statistical Information  In an argumentative piece of writing, statistical evidence is convincing. In this article, the author chiefly uses statistical evidence including exact statistical information ( on he re- imprisonment of paroled criminals) and approximate statistics (on the crime rate of the U. S.)

32 B. Rhetorical Questions  These are questions that do not expect an answer but express a strong feeling, opinion or impression.  Can we send them to prison?  Can we execute more than 22,000 murderers?  More examples:  Who was he to take stand against a custom?  Do you see anything green in my eyes?

33 C. Selective Use of Repetition  Repetition is used for emphasis and expression of a strong feeling.  In Para. 6, the structure “ of the /every … only/about ” is used five times for emphasis.  More examples:  Alone, alone, all, all alone.  He is as vulgar as a hog, as awkward as an elephant, and as ugly as an ape.

34 D. Analogy  It is the comparison of two unlike things for the purpose of illustration. The comparison is possible because the two things have something in common.  In Para. 4, the writer compares a criminal ’ s acceptance into a prison with e admission of a high-school graduate to a college.

35  More examples of analogy:  Judicious praise is to children what the sun is to flowers.  The growth of alternative mental interests is a long process. The seeds must be carefully chosen; they must fall on good ground; they must be sedulously tended, if the vivifying fruits are to be at hand when needed.

36 E. language and style  Formal essay

37 Language points (words and expressions)  refuse reject  refuse is more positive, often implying decisiveness.  decline means to refuse courteously.  reject means a throwing away, a discarding, or abandoning of someone or something as unsatisfactory, defective, or useless.

38 commit  To make somebody agree or promise to do something  The agreement commits them to a minimum number of performances per year.  To use available things or people for a particular purpose.  They ’ ll have to commit more money to the project if it ’ s to succeed.  To give someone or something to someone else to look after  They commit a child to a doctor ’ s care.  Commit oneself to give a definite opinion  Chairman refused to commit himself on the controversial subject before making investigations.

39 illustrate  To show what something is like, or show that something is true.  The following examples illustrate our point.  To draw the pictures in a book, or put pictures in a book.  The book was illustrated with color photographs.  She has illustrated several children ’ s book.

40 measure  Measure sth by sth  Success isn ’ t measured by how much money you have.  Measure sth in terms of sth  Popularity is still measured in terms of winning elections.  Measure sb/sth/against sb/sth  Measured against the success of some of their rivals, the performance looks poor.

41 tough  Get tough with  When he started to argue, I got tough with him.  Be tough on  The new mayor intends to be tough on crime.  Take a tough stance/stand  We must take a tough stance against terrorism.  Tough luck  Used for saying that you have no sympathy for someone  Well, tough luck! I ’ m not going to do what he wants.

42 Be/go easy on sb (be/go easy with/on sth) .To tell someone not to punish a person too severely.  Go easy on these children and let them enjoy themselves.  To eat or use a small amount of something.  Go easy on the cake. There isn ’ t much left.  easier said than done  easy come, easy go

43 Discussion What is the root of crime?

44 Possible answers  The lack of moral control  The gap between the rich and poor  The lack of effective laws  The police and court being too soft on criminals  The meaningless of life  Lack of education

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