Presentation on theme: "More Crime and Less Punishment Richard Moran Lesson 3."— Presentation transcript:
More Crime and Less Punishment Richard Moran Lesson 3
Background information AAbout the author RRichard Moran aa criminologist and a leading expert on the insanity defense, capital punishment, and the history of the electric chair. MMoran has also written articles for the Washington Post, Christian Science Monitor, New York Times, and Newsweek.
Warm-up 11. What do you now about justice system in America? 22. What is the guiding principle in criminal court in America? 33. What are the advantages and disadvantages of the principle? 44. What expressions do you know about crime, law and court?
Jury system The Jury trial is an important component in the judicial system. The jury consists of 12 jurors, selected at random, which will, after hearing all the evidence and cross-examination, give a verdict of guilty or innocent. Then, the judge will pass sentence.
Guiding Principle In many jurisdictions, the majority of a jury is not sufficient to find a defendant guilty, all 12 members must agree to the person ’ s guilt. 1. What do you now about jury system in America?
Guiding principle The court must prove the accused person ’ s guilt beyond a reasonable doubt. In other words, the accused is held innocent until proved guilty. 2. What is the guiding principle in criminal court in America?
(advantage) In theory, the concept makes sure that a case is not misjudged and that an innocent person is not unjustly treated. (disadvantage) However, in other cases, this may help criminals to escape punishment for his lawyer can always raise a reasonable doubt concerning the evidence or the trustworthiness of the witnesses. Also, collecting evidence and having a trial or even summon a jury cost a lot of money.
Expressions related to crime, law and court Correctional personnel parole crime rate arrest record property crime to prosecute sb to imprison/jail a criminal to execute a murderer
Parole: permission that is given to a prisoner to leave prison before the end of their sentence on condition that they behave well. E.g. she was released on parole. She was paroled after two years.
To prosecute sb (for sth/doing sth): To officially charge sb with a crime in a court of law E.g. Trespassers will be prosecuted. 闲人莫入，伪者必究
Text Analysis Part I (para.1-3) Introduction of the central idea: punishment does not reduce crime Part II (para. 4-9) Why punishment doesn't deter crime. Part III (para. 10) Conclusion: getting tough with criminals is not the answer to the crime problem.
Part I Text analysis — Para 1 The best estimates suggest that 36 to 40 million people have arrest records for nontraffic offenses. (para.1) Paraphrase the sentence. We already have 2.4 million people under some form of correctional supervision. （ para.1 ） What is meant by ‘ under some form of correctional supervision ” ?
Para 2 Read through the paragraph; Please find out the words to show contrast in this paragraph; Please describe to your partner what those contrasts are.
Para 2 This is why at present moment not all crimes are punished and punishment for crime is less severe than before though the crime rate is on the increase. Can you recall the original sentence in our text book?
Para 3 We think that punishment deters crime, but it just might be the other way around. (Para. 3) Paraphrase the sentence with the help of the following explanation:
Deter To discourage, check or prevent sth. through the threat of sth. unpleasant. E.g. A heavy fine alone won ’ t deter shoplifting. The rain didn't deter people from coming to the game. The university enforces severe punishment to deter cheating in exams.
TThe other way around/round: TThe opposite situation. TThe theft did not shoot the policeman. It was the other way round. WWhat is the relationship between crime and punishment in your eye?
Part II 1) Just as the decline in the number of high-school graduates … made it more difficult to get into prison. (para.4) What are being compared in this sentence?
Comparison between a prison and a college (Para 4) Your opinion?
Comparison between a prison and a college (para 4) Similarities: Purpose: education Living situation: collective living; high population density Discipline: strict Enrollment (difficult to get in) High wall (symbol for no freedom; limited rights) Under control by government Important department of the nation who send out financial aid every now and then Human resources distribution (classes, ranks) Elite persons go to elite college/prison
difference Payment Willingness/motivation Quality of people Gender Both male and female Content of education / correction Reputation Paper examinations
2 ） While elite colleges and universities still have high standards of admissions, some of the more “ exclusive ” prisons now require about five prior serious crimes before an inmate is accepted into their correctional program. (para. 4) Define “ elite colleges ”, “ exclusive prisons ”, and “ prior serious crimes ”.
Exclusive 11limited to only one person or group of people: TThis room is for the exclusive use of guests. eexclusive agency ( 独家代理 ) 22expensive and only for people who are rich or of a high social class: aan exclusive private club aan apartment in an exclusive part of town
What makes an elite college Graduates Faculties Facilities History Culture and spirit Natural environment Positive circulation Academic Comprehensive (subjects; wide range) Financial ability Scale
3 ） Our current crop of prisoners is an elite group …. (para.4) Paraphrase the sentence. 4) Yet when measured against the lower crime rates … are not worth the cost to state and local governments. (para.7) Explain the first part of the sentence.
5) Besides, those states that have tried to gain voters ’ approval for bonds to build new prisons often discover …. (para.7) What does “ bonds ” mean here? What do the bonds have to do with the voters ’ approval?
8) The first-year operation cost would be … worth it if the victim were you or me, but much too expensive to be feasible as a national policy. (para. 9) Why worth it if we were the victims, but no feasible as a national policy?
6) While it is not possible to know the true amount of crime committed by people released from prison in any given year, … (para. 8) Explain the use of “ while ” and the meaning of the word “ given ” here. 7) … this would amount to only 15,000 crimes prevented: a drop in the bucket when measured against the 41 million crimes committed each year. (para. 8) Paraphrase the sentence.
Part III What is the conclusion of the author?
Writing skills A. Statistical Information In an argumentative piece of writing, statistical evidence is convincing. In this article, the author chiefly uses statistical evidence including exact statistical information ( on he re- imprisonment of paroled criminals) and approximate statistics (on the crime rate of the U. S.)
B. Rhetorical Questions These are questions that do not expect an answer but express a strong feeling, opinion or impression. Can we send them to prison? Can we execute more than 22,000 murderers? More examples: Who was he to take stand against a custom? Do you see anything green in my eyes?
C. Selective Use of Repetition Repetition is used for emphasis and expression of a strong feeling. In Para. 6, the structure “ of the /every … only/about ” is used five times for emphasis. More examples: Alone, alone, all, all alone. He is as vulgar as a hog, as awkward as an elephant, and as ugly as an ape.
D. Analogy It is the comparison of two unlike things for the purpose of illustration. The comparison is possible because the two things have something in common. In Para. 4, the writer compares a criminal ’ s acceptance into a prison with e admission of a high-school graduate to a college.
More examples of analogy: Judicious praise is to children what the sun is to flowers. The growth of alternative mental interests is a long process. The seeds must be carefully chosen; they must fall on good ground; they must be sedulously tended, if the vivifying fruits are to be at hand when needed.
Language points (words and expressions) refuse reject refuse is more positive, often implying decisiveness. decline means to refuse courteously. reject means a throwing away, a discarding, or abandoning of someone or something as unsatisfactory, defective, or useless.
commit To make somebody agree or promise to do something The agreement commits them to a minimum number of performances per year. To use available things or people for a particular purpose. They ’ ll have to commit more money to the project if it ’ s to succeed. To give someone or something to someone else to look after They commit a child to a doctor ’ s care. Commit oneself to give a definite opinion Chairman refused to commit himself on the controversial subject before making investigations.
illustrate To show what something is like, or show that something is true. The following examples illustrate our point. To draw the pictures in a book, or put pictures in a book. The book was illustrated with color photographs. She has illustrated several children ’ s book.
measure Measure sth by sth Success isn ’ t measured by how much money you have. Measure sth in terms of sth Popularity is still measured in terms of winning elections. Measure sb/sth/against sb/sth Measured against the success of some of their rivals, the performance looks poor.
tough Get tough with When he started to argue, I got tough with him. Be tough on The new mayor intends to be tough on crime. Take a tough stance/stand We must take a tough stance against terrorism. Tough luck Used for saying that you have no sympathy for someone Well, tough luck! I ’ m not going to do what he wants.
Be/go easy on sb (be/go easy with/on sth) .To tell someone not to punish a person too severely. Go easy on these children and let them enjoy themselves. To eat or use a small amount of something. Go easy on the cake. There isn ’ t much left. easier said than done easy come, easy go
Possible answers The lack of moral control The gap between the rich and poor The lack of effective laws The police and court being too soft on criminals The meaningless of life Lack of education