Presentation on theme: "Theories of Deviance Ledford 01/2009. Three Schools Structural Functionalism (not normal by norms, values, or laws) *deviations come from the formation."— Presentation transcript:
Three Schools Structural Functionalism (not normal by norms, values, or laws) *deviations come from the formation of norms and values which are enforced by institutions *macro view of deviance *deviants are not deviant by nature but rather are born our of institutions arbitrarily creating new prescriptions or proscriptions
Symbolic Interactionism *looks at individual vs. institutional *deviance is learned Conflict Theory 1. conflict arises between individuals and groups 2. deviance is a reaction due to conflict between individuals and groups (usually over resources)
Constructionism is the blending of labeling and conflict theories. 3 School Breakdown by Theory Structural Functionalism 1. Durkheim’s Anomie 2. Merton’s Strain Theory Symbolic Interactionism 1. Sutherland’s Differential Association 2. Sykes & Matza’s Nuetralization Theory 3. Tannenbaum & Becker’s Labeling Theory 4. Hirschi’s Control Theory Conflict Theory 1. Marx 2. Michel Focault’s Discipline and Punish and the “Panopticon”
Strain Theory cont.’d AcceptReject Conformity (1)Innovations (2) Ritualism (3)Retreatism (4) Accept Reject Explanations on the next slide…note the numbers in each box. Institutionalized Means Cultural Coals Rebellion (5) New Means New Goals
Strain Theory Cont.d 1) White collar employee who holds a full time job to support their family. 2) Drug dealer who sells drugs to support their family. 3) White collar employee who holds a job but is completed disenfranchised with American Dream. 4) Drug addicts who don’t care about social goals and use drugs to escape reality. 5) Radicals who want to change capitalist system in order to build new social structure.
Differential Association cont.’d Assumptions 1)Learning takes place using communication within intimate groups 2)Techniques, motives, drives, rationalizations, and attitudes = learned! 3)Excess of definition favorable to deviation 4)Legitimate and illegitimate behavior both express same general needs and values
Functionalism by Emile Durkheim cont.’d “Imagine a society of saints, a perfect cloister of exemplary individuals.” Something will emerge as deviant and will be judged, eventually. This is because, “What confers this character upon them is not the intrinsic quality of a given act but the definition which the collective conscience lends them.”
Constructionism by Best Cont.’d Born of two developments: 1) The Social Construction of Reality by Peter L. Berger and Thomas Luckmann (1966) 2) Labeling Theory, leading approach to study of deviance in the 60’s (labeling theory came under fire in the 70’s- construnctionism is an answer of sorts)
Constructionism by Best Cont.’d The Constructionist had to look at the claims and the claim-makers. They were now looking at the construction of social problems as opposed to deviance. Eventually, the pendulum swung back towards the study of deviance because after all after wife abuse is defined as a social problem, the officer must still define- or construct- the events as an incident of wife abuse. Therefore, deviance is also socially constructed.
Durkheim’s Anomie Cont.’d a)Those who commit suicide have less “to bind them to stable social norms and goals” b)Two dimensions of the social bond 1. social integration *attachment to groups and institutions 2. social regulation *adherence to the norms and values of society independent
Durkheim’s Anomie cont.’d Egoism: Very Unintegrated Anomie: Very Unregulated Altruism: Very Integrated Fatalism: Very Regulated IntegrationRegulation
Durkheim’s Anomie Cont.’d Types of Suicide 1)Altruistic: death for the good of the group 2)Egoistic: death for the removal of the self either due to or lack of ties to others 3)Anomic: death for the confounding of self-interests and societies norms
Labeling Theory cont.’d Edwin Lemert coined “Primary and Secondary” deviance PrimarySecondary *before deviant label*after deviant label *admitted or reported*reaction to label Also: Retrospective = self labeling in reflection Prospective = sees future acts as deviant
Labeling Theory Cont.’d Steps to Becoming Deviant 1)Primary Deviation 2)Social Penalties (as a result of label) 3)Secondary Deviance 4)Stronger Penalties 5)Further deviance with resentment/ hostility 6)Community stigmatizes individual 7)Strengthening of deviant conduct b/c of #4 &6 8)Acceptance of role as deviant or criminal
Discipline and Punish cont.’d Punishment in the form of torture has been phased out of modern society due to the dispersion of power Modern state receives praise for its fairness and dispersion of power which controls the masses vs. the individual Institutions control people through the use of discipline like the modern prison (panopticon) Postmodern society is characterized by a lack of free-will on the part of the individual Institutions of knowledge, norms and values are simply in place to categorize and control humans