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Theories of Deviance Ledford 01/2009. Three Schools Structural Functionalism (not normal by norms, values, or laws) *deviations come from the formation.

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Presentation on theme: "Theories of Deviance Ledford 01/2009. Three Schools Structural Functionalism (not normal by norms, values, or laws) *deviations come from the formation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Theories of Deviance Ledford 01/2009

2 Three Schools Structural Functionalism (not normal by norms, values, or laws) *deviations come from the formation of norms and values which are enforced by institutions *macro view of deviance *deviants are not deviant by nature but rather are born our of institutions arbitrarily creating new prescriptions or proscriptions

3 Symbolic Interactionism *looks at individual vs. institutional *deviance is learned Conflict Theory 1. conflict arises between individuals and groups 2. deviance is a reaction due to conflict between individuals and groups (usually over resources)

4 Constructionism is the blending of labeling and conflict theories. 3 School Breakdown by Theory Structural Functionalism 1. Durkheim’s Anomie 2. Merton’s Strain Theory Symbolic Interactionism 1. Sutherland’s Differential Association 2. Sykes & Matza’s Nuetralization Theory 3. Tannenbaum & Becker’s Labeling Theory 4. Hirschi’s Control Theory Conflict Theory 1. Marx 2. Michel Focault’s Discipline and Punish and the “Panopticon”

5 Strain Theory by Robert Agnew Adler and Adler ©2009 Deviance looked at in terms of goals vs. means to obtain those goals Merton added to “Anomie” coined by Emile Durkheim (will be discussed next session) in that he added the phrase “legitimate” before means

6 Strain Theory cont.’d AcceptReject Conformity (1)Innovations (2) Ritualism (3)Retreatism (4) Accept Reject Explanations on the next slide…note the numbers in each box. Institutionalized Means Cultural Coals Rebellion (5) New Means New Goals

7 Strain Theory Cont.d 1) White collar employee who holds a full time job to support their family. 2) Drug dealer who sells drugs to support their family. 3) White collar employee who holds a job but is completed disenfranchised with American Dream. 4) Drug addicts who don’t care about social goals and use drugs to escape reality. 5) Radicals who want to change capitalist system in order to build new social structure.

8 Control Theory by Hirschi Adler and Adler ©2009 Why do people refrain from deviant behavior? Norms deter criminal behavior Deterrence occurs when people believe there’s more to gain by refraining from deviance

9 Control Theory cont.’d Hirschi’s Four Factors of Control 1)Commitment 2)Attachment 3)Belief 4)Involvement *They are all positively correlated.

10 Differential Association by Sutherland and Cressy Adler and Adler ©2009 Not nature, its nurture that causes deviance Acquisition of deviant knowledge no different than the acquisition of any other knowledge

11 Differential Association cont.’d Assumptions 1)Learning takes place using communication within intimate groups 2)Techniques, motives, drives, rationalizations, and attitudes = learned! 3)Excess of definition favorable to deviation 4)Legitimate and illegitimate behavior both express same general needs and values

12 Functionalism by Emile Durkheim Adler and Adler ©2009 Deviance is not “an illness” but rather “something that contributes to society’s positive functioning.” Crime is normal as long as it doesn’t exceed certain levels. This is true because a society without it is IMPOSSIBLE. a) this is because if there were no crime, everyone would agree on what’s right, and how is that diverse…new diversities in beliefs/values/etc would emerge

13 Functionalism by Emile Durkheim cont.’d “Imagine a society of saints, a perfect cloister of exemplary individuals.” Something will emerge as deviant and will be judged, eventually. This is because, “What confers this character upon them is not the intrinsic quality of a given act but the definition which the collective conscience lends them.”

14 Constructionist Stance by Joel Best Adler and Adler ©2009 Constructionism is a marriage between labeling and conflict theories. This perspective frames the majority of articles in your text. “Reality, that is everything we understand about the world, is socially constructed.”

15 Constructionism by Best Cont.’d Born of two developments: 1) The Social Construction of Reality by Peter L. Berger and Thomas Luckmann (1966) 2) Labeling Theory, leading approach to study of deviance in the 60’s (labeling theory came under fire in the 70’s- construnctionism is an answer of sorts)

16 Constructionism by Best Cont.’d The Constructionist had to look at the claims and the claim-makers. They were now looking at the construction of social problems as opposed to deviance. Eventually, the pendulum swung back towards the study of deviance because after all after wife abuse is defined as a social problem, the officer must still define- or construct- the events as an incident of wife abuse. Therefore, deviance is also socially constructed.

17 Durkheim’s Anomie Adler and Adler ©2006 Emile Durkheim was a 19 th Century Frenchmen who studied suicide: He is regarded as the father of Sociology. Anomie is a lack of an individuals personal norms, values, beliefs and is often referred to as “normlessness.”

18 Durkheim’s Anomie Cont.’d a)Those who commit suicide have less “to bind them to stable social norms and goals” b)Two dimensions of the social bond 1. social integration *attachment to groups and institutions 2. social regulation *adherence to the norms and values of society independent

19 Durkheim’s Anomie cont.’d Egoism: Very Unintegrated Anomie: Very Unregulated Altruism: Very Integrated Fatalism: Very Regulated IntegrationRegulation

20 Durkheim’s Anomie Cont.’d Types of Suicide 1)Altruistic: death for the good of the group 2)Egoistic: death for the removal of the self either due to or lack of ties to others 3)Anomic: death for the confounding of self-interests and societies norms

21 Neutralization by Syke’s and Matza Adler and Adler ©2006 Deviants will rationalize behaviors or conditions as OK 1)Denial of Responsibility- propelled helplessly 2)Denial of Injury- doesn’t hurt anyone and/ or not morally wrong 3)Denial of Victim- the victim did not receive harm 4)Condemnatation of the Condemners- “they’re hypocrites or deviants too” 5)Appeal to Higher Loyalties: family, friendship, God more important than law or conforming

22 Labeling Theory by Becker and Tannenbaum Adler and Adler ©2006 Step 1: Dominant Group applies deviant label Step 2: The now-labeled “Deviant” internalizes the label Step 3: “Deviant” acts accordingly & takes on “real” deviant outlook, appearance, action *Elements of conflict theory as dominant group decides who gets labeled.

23 Labeling Theory cont.’d Edwin Lemert coined “Primary and Secondary” deviance PrimarySecondary *before deviant label*after deviant label *admitted or reported*reaction to label Also: Retrospective = self labeling in reflection Prospective = sees future acts as deviant

24 Labeling Theory Cont.’d Steps to Becoming Deviant 1)Primary Deviation 2)Social Penalties (as a result of label) 3)Secondary Deviance 4)Stronger Penalties 5)Further deviance with resentment/ hostility 6)Community stigmatizes individual 7)Strengthening of deviant conduct b/c of #4 &6 8)Acceptance of role as deviant or criminal

25 Michel Foucault’s Discipline and Punish Adler and Adler ©2006

26 Discipline and Punish cont.’d Punishment in the form of torture has been phased out of modern society due to the dispersion of power Modern state receives praise for its fairness and dispersion of power which controls the masses vs. the individual Institutions control people through the use of discipline like the modern prison (panopticon) Postmodern society is characterized by a lack of free-will on the part of the individual Institutions of knowledge, norms and values are simply in place to categorize and control humans

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