We think you have liked this presentation. If you wish to download it, please recommend it to your friends in any social system. Share buttons are a little bit lower. Thank you!
Presentation is loading. Please wait.
Published byGodfrey Hutchinson
Modified about 1 year ago
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc “While we read history we make it”… G.W. Curtis ( ) The History and Pioneers of Criminology Chapter 4
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Learning Objectives Discuss the three major schools of criminological thought. Recognize the impact these schools have had on our current view of crime, criminals, and justice. Be cognizant of the pioneers who have contributed to criminological reform in Canada and internationally. Appreciate the necessity of an interdisciplinary approach to the study of crime, criminals, and the justice system. Recognize the need to include crime prevention in an integrated and interdisciplinary model.
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Roots of Criminological Theory Two schools: Classical vs. Positivist All theories can trace their roots - roots of Social Reform “Theories are the nets cast to catch the world, to rationalize, to explain, and to master it.” Karl Popper
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Roots of Criminological Theory Crime viewed as rebellious act committed by poor against rich/political structure punishment justified as mean to establish/maintain order (mentality remains?) Dark Ages: responses to harsh retributive punishment Wergild: 1st victim compensation Ordeals: duals to the death Oath-helpers: testify your innocence
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Classical School Period of Enlightenment Cesare Becarria: Box 4.1 Unfair punishment, abuse of power & corrupt economic systems that taxed the poor to support rich/powerful Separation of church and state Sought naturalistic explanations
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Cesare Becarria 3 conditions met could deter potential offenders Certainty of punishment Swiftness of justice Severity of punishment FOUR Grand Principles: equality liberty utilitarianism – Bentham Box 4.2 humanitarianism nullum crimen sin lege nulla poena sine lege
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Jeremy Bentham “felicitous calculus” - Box 4.2 Fundamental principles still foundation of social policy in Canada and others 2 levels of deterrence – specific and general Fear of arrest to act as deterrent especially when linked to indirect social penalties/costs of arrest 3 types of social costs: commitment costs attachment costs stigma
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Neo-classical School Rossi; Gerrad; Joly In response to failure of rehab & public outcry for return to harsher punishments & that punishment should fit crime Flexibility into legal system (discretion) Soft-determinism & Rational choice theory French Revolution (1791) and French Penal Code of 1812 Canadian legal system The Singapore Experiment; Indonesia kissing laws
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Scientific School/Positivist August Comte: final social developmental stage when people embrace a rational, scientific view of the world as opposed to relying on metaphysical School of CARTOLOGY Crime as a product of social conditions (environment) The role of determinism and science The “Holy Three” – Lombroso; Garafalo; Ferri
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Lombroso: Father of Modern Criminology Atavism - morphological study, criminal stigma 4 types of criminals born criminal occasional criminal insane criminal by passion First to write about the female offender Concept of parens patriae
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Law vs. Science Classical School Based on reforming criminal law & maintaining social order through criminal responsibility Retribution and revenge Reform the law Positivist School Embraces determinism – rather than punish someone not capable of controlling actions, special consideration & conditioning might be required Reform and rehabilitation Reform the man
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Criminology at Work Pioneers in criminal justice & prison reform Alexander Maconochie: Australia and penal reforms (rights) prisoners earn all they receive prison industries (e.g., chain gangs, building own institutions, farming, etc.) “Prison is not a place to punish but a place where one served one’s punishment.” Maconochie
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Prison Reform John Howard Society Elizabeth Fry Society classification & vocational training humane treatment & constructive work
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Law Enforcement Sir Robert Peel: formalized policing Uniforms and discipline Community policing - foundation of today Key principles of conduct Use minimal force, impartial service of law, efficiency is an absence of crime!
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Legal Reform Charles Doe: criminal responsibility Pedro Montereo: train lawyers & judges in social sciences Issac Ray: mitigating circumstances to recognise/consider medical evidence, phrenology, moral insanity expert testimony (insanity, forensics, DNA)
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Criminalistics Alphonse Bertillon: Anthropometry Hans Gross: Austrian School & Victimology Marc Ansel: social defence protection over punishment respect breeds responsibility (Box 4.15)
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Canadian Pioneers Denise Szabo The “father of Canadian criminology” Psychological and historical context Fattah: Victimology Criminology and criminal policy are inseparable Eclectic and international background
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Prevention as a School of Thought Traditional etiologies of crime have not been able to fully explain, understand, predict or suppress crime….therefore…. Some strategies work well for property- related crimes less effective for crimes against persons
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Prevention Oscar Newman: modify the environment C.R. Jeffery: interaction of biology, behaviour, and environment Proactive vs. reactive process Police - ‘Geographic Profiling’ Address the OPPORTUNITY (real or perceived) to commit crimes in order to deter/prevent fixing broken windows target hardening
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Summary History is diverse and complex Two major schools of thought Most theories trace their roots to either Classical or Positivist ideas Disciplines calls for an integrated and interdisciplinary approach Canadian ‘pioneers’ making their mark
“while we read history we make it”… G.W. Curtis ( ) The History and Pioneers of Criminology.
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Chapter 1 Canadian Criminology Its nature and structure “Obviously crime pays, or there'd be no crime.”
Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved 0 Criminology: A Sociological.
©2008 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Corrections: An Introduction, 2/e Seiter CJ 240: Legal Issues in Corrections.
Housekeeping Seminars Seminars Discussion Boards Discussion Boards Quizzes Quizzes Written Assignments – lots of them! Written Assignments – lots of them!
Classical Criminology Based on the assumption that individuals choose to commit crimes after weighing the consequences of their actions. Grew out of.
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Chapter 14 Future Directions in Criminology “You can never plan the future by the past” – Edmund.
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada Inc The Classical Thinkers Chapter 5.
Classical Criminology (1750s – 1850s) Bentham & Beccaria The Rise of the Prisons & Penitentiary.
Rational Choice, Routine Activities, and Deterrence.
Introduction to “Canadian Criminology” Instructor: Office hours: Tel/
Chapter Choice Theory Development of Choice Theory Development of Choice Theory Concepts of Rational Choice Concepts of Rational Choice Rationality.
Larry J. Siegel Dennis Souther Stanly Community College, Albemarle, NC Chapter One Crime and Criminology.
For most of it’s history, almost all criminology was sociological criminology.
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Chapter 8 Violent Crimes “To all of us crime seems like violence” K. Menninger, ’68:157.
UI 309 Carol Veneziano. Definition of crime n Crime is an act n or the omission of an act n In violation of the penal codes n without defense or justification.
The Criminal Justice System. Approaches to Crime Control Deterrence: the threat of punishment does deter crime if the individual knows: ▫They are likely.
Criminal Justice Today Twelfth Edition CHAPTER Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century, 12e Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2014.
Chapter 15 Pages Social norms refers to social expectations that guide people’s behaviour. Can be “prescriptive” (tell us what to do) or.
AJ 50 – Introduction to Administration of Justice Chapter 9 - Sentencing.
Sociological Criminology, Criminology & Cultural Criminology.
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Chapter 6 Psychology-Based Perspectives of Criminal Behaviour Does a poet create, originate, initiate.
CRIMINAL LAW 1. Ahmed T. Ghandour.. PART 2. PENOLOGY.
Unit 3 – Criminal Law. The Nature of Crime O Definition: Any Act or omission defined as criminal under the Criminal Code or related statutes. O Defining.
Chapter 1 The Changing Boundaries of Criminology.
CJ 102 Introduction to Criminology. Seminar Topic This seminar will discuss what Criminology is and how Criminologists define crime. How do theories created.
Intro to Law “Laws are like sausages, it’s better to not see them being made”- Bismarck.
Lesson 4 – Classical Approach and Rational Choice Robert Wonser Introduction to Criminology Crime and Delinquency 1.
Canada’s Justice System Chapter 2 Review. No one, no matter how important or powerful, is above the law - not the government; not the Prime Minister;
©2002 Wadsworth Publishing Co. CRIMINOLOGY 2002 Chapter 1 Crime and Criminology Prepared by: Larry Bassi SUNY College at Brockport Prepared by: Larry Bassi.
Chapter 1 The Goals of Correctional Policy Corrections Content: Jails, probation, prisons, parole Context: Democracy, bureaucracy Goals: Fairness (law)
Crime and Economics. What problems arose as people flocked to cities? Theft Arson.
SENTENCING AND CORRECTIONS CHAPTER 15 PAGES
Chapter One: Crime and Criminology. Criminology Is an integrated approach to the study of the nature, extent, cause, and control of criminal behavior.
The Rational Offender The “Classical School” Deterrence Theory Rational Choice Theory Routine Activities Theory.
THE EARLY SCHOOLS OF CRIMINOLOGY : CLASSICAL VIEW AND POSITIVISM.
Lachlan, Steven, Genevieve. Crimes (Sentencing Procedure) Act 1999, Section 3A To ensure that the offender is adequately punished for the crime. To.
Biological Theories. Are Criminals Fundamentally Different from Non-criminals? Classical School –No Biological positivists –Yes.
Criminal Justice Today CHAPTER Criminal Justice Today, 13th Edition Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2015, © 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
CRIMINOLOGY Is an integrated approach to the study of the nature, extent, cause, and control of criminal behavior.
The criminal courts: Procedure and sentencing Sentencing.
Dr. Terry M. Mors, Ed.D. © Mors Copyright 2010 What is the definition of crime? There are multiple definitions But basically, it is … conduct that.
© 2015 Cengage Learning Chapter 2 Causes of Crime Chapter 2 Causes of Crime © 2015 Cengage Learning.
PURPOSES AND PRINCIPLES OF SENTENCING. Goals of Sentencing In Section 718 of the Criminal Code a statement is found that gives judges some direction.
Application of Criminological Theory to Terrorism Prevention Detective Eric Paull Planning Research and Development Akron, OH Police Department.
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada Inc What Is Criminology? Chapter 1.
To access Web-based resources supporting Criminology Today, please visit:
© 2017 SlidePlayer.com Inc. All rights reserved.