Presentation on theme: "Using Enforcement to Reduce Underage Drinking"— Presentation transcript:
1Using Enforcement to Reduce Underage Drinking Michael SparksAlcohol Policy Specialist
2Please answer, in the chat box: QuestionPlease answer, in the chat box:What campus are you from?What is your role in prevention?Do you work with a coalition?
3Today’s Discussion Public Health Model of Prevention Laws as one type of environmental preventionLogic Model of Community Influences of Underage DrinkingThe role of law enforcement in reducing underage drinking
4How familiar are you with environmental approaches/strategies? Poll #1How familiar are you with environmental approaches/strategies?Very familiarKind of familiarNot familiar
5Alcohol-Related Problems Public Health ModelIndividualAlcoholEnvironmentAlcohol-Related Problems
7What works: Reviews of the U.S. and global research literature CDC Guide to Community Preventive Services
8Policy Approaches to Prevention Formal legal and regulatory mechanisms, rules, and procedures for reducing risky behaviors (e.g., the consumption of alcohol or risky drinking behaviors)Implementation and enforcement of these measuresMost approaches to reducing youth drinking depend on educational approaches—especially school-based education. Limited—a few hours, kids returned to a context where alcohol id readily available and glamorized. Policy approaches try to address the context of drinking..Grube & Nygaard, 2001; Toomey & Wagenaar, 1999
9The Environmental Perspective: Targets the social, physical or public environment where sales/use occursViews alcohol and other drug problems not just as individual addiction, but rather as the collective reflection of community norms and practicesTargets are policy makers and others with authority to change environmentsSeeks to change physical, legal, economic & social processes of communities
11Purpose of Enforcement of Alcohol Policies Decrease availability of alcohol by increasing economic costs and opportunity costsDeter drinking, heavy drinking, or drinking-related problem behaviorsModerate relations between drinking and problem outcomesIn sum, alcohol policy focuses on three processes: (1) decreasing availability of alcohol by increasing the opportunity costs associated with obtaining it, including convenience or opportunity costs.(2) Reducing consumption or problems through deterrence or increases in costs through penalties or sanctions. In case of minors such costs may include penalties incurred for MIP or attempted purchase.(3) Decrease involvement in problem behaviors by decreasing relative costs of alternative behaviors (e.g., free rides, public transportation, locating outlets where driving is not required).The overall goal is to increase the relative full costs
14Discussion QuestionsWhat are the conditions in your community that require some sort of enforcement action?
15Levels of Enforcement Institutional Community Society Parent Home Teacher/AdministratorSchoolCommunityAssociation/WatchNeighborhoodPoliceCitySheriffCountySocietyABC, DPSStateATF, TTBFederal
16Levels of Enforcement Institutional Community Society Parent Home Teacher/AdministratorSchoolCommunityAssociation/WatchNeighborhoodPoliceCitySheriffCountySocietyABCStateATF, TTBFederal
17Only 2 of every 1000 occasions of underage drinking result in arrest Arrest RateOnly 2 of every 1000 occasions ofunderage drinking result in arrestSlide # 592Source: Wagenaar & Wolfson, 1994
18Action Against Outlets Only 5 of every 100,000 occasions ofunderage drinking result in actionagainst outlet.Slide # 593Source: Wagenaar & Wolfson, 1994
19Deterrence TheoryLegal threat of punishment encourages or prevents behaviorPunishment must be:CertainSwiftSevereGeneral and specific deterrence
20Laws are effective when they are perceived as… LegitimatePracticalEffectiveProportional to the problem
21The Role of Coalitions in Promoting Effective Enforcement Key Coalition Functions:Include enforcement agency in all deliberations regarding enforcement of policy at the start of the policy processBuild strong organizational and personal relationships with key enforcement personnelIdentify shared self-interest associated with enforcementTake responsibility for making the case to the community for the importance of enforcementCreatively collaborate to address enforcement’s financial constraints associated with implementationUse the media to publically support enforcement activities and give credit to enforcement agency when they are carried out
22QuestionCan you please type into your chat box examples of enforcement strategies you have implemented.
23A Logic Model for Reducing Underage Drinking… A Logic Model for Reducing Underage Drinking… The Role of Enforcement in Impacting Alcohol-Related Problems
24Underage Drinking: Basic Research Evidence: Population Prevention EffectsStrongModerateLow (target group only)None (no target or population)Visible EnforcementRetail Availability of Alcohol to YouthAlcohol-Related Problems(Traffic crashes, Injuries,School performance. Unsafe sex, Violence, etc.)PriceSocial Availability of Alcohol to YouthUnderage Drinking LawsUnderage DrinkingDrinking BeliefsCommunity Norms About YouthDrinkingFamily, School, and Peer InfluenceDrinking ContextAlcohol Promotion (Advertising, Point of Sale Promotion , Sponsorship of Community Events)Holder/Saltz: Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation
25Underage Drinking: Evidence-based Theory of Change Retailer Training & rewardsCompliance checks, citations, license lossRetail Sale of alcohol to youthUnderage drinking lawsVisible enforcementSocial availability of alcohol to youth (parties, peers, families)Underage DrinkingParty patrol,Shoulder taps,Beer keg registrationLocal alcohol policyFamily, School, & Peer InfluenceCommunity norms about youth drinkingLegal risks for providing alcohol to underageMedia advocacy
28James Fell et al. The Impact of Underage Drinking Laws on Alcohol-Related Fatal Crashes of Young Drivers Alcohol Clin Exp Res, 2009MethodsAnalysis of the Fatality Analysis Reporting System fromExamined the effects of the minimum legal drinking age of 21 on the ratio of drinking to non-drinking drivers under age 21 in fatal crashesControlled for:Zero Tolerance LawsGraduated License Night RestrictionsUse/Lose lawsAdministrative License Revocation.10, .08 BAC per seMandatory seat belt lawsPer capita beer consumptionUnemployment rateVehicle miles traveledFrequency of sobriety checkpointsNumber of licensed driversRatio of drinking to non-drinking driversAge 26+ in fatal crashesRatio of drinking to non-drinking drivers age 26+ in fatal crashes
29Fell et al., Alcohol Clin Exp Res, 2009 (cont) ResultsMinimum legal drinking age was independently associated with a 16% decline in the ratio of drinking to non-drinking drivers in fatal crashes under age 21Other laws that independently predicted lower involvement of drinking drivers under age 21 in fatal crashes:Use/Lose laws ↓5%Zero tolerance laws ↓5%0.08% BAC limit ↓ 8%0.10% BAC limit ↓ 7%Administrative license ↓ 5%revocation (ALR)Seat belt laws ↓ 3%
30Fell et al., Alcohol Clin Exp Res, 2009 (cont) ConclusionsMinimum legal drinking age of 21 reduced involvement of drinking drivers under 21 in fatal crashes (16%)Zero tolerance laws and Use/Lose laws targeted drivers under 21 also produced reductionsLaws targeting drinking drivers of all ages also reduced involvement of drinking drivers under 21 in fatal crashes (0.08% and .10% BAC limits, ALR, seat belt laws)
31… but there’s more than just minimum legal drinking age laws!
32DUI Enforcement General vs specific enforcement Sobriety checkpoints Saturation patrolsRevocation/suspensionIgnition interlockLast drinkCheck-in programs
33Sobriety CheckpointsRestrict traffic flow in a designated area and check drivers for signs of impairmentPrimarily general deterrence – increase perceived riskHigh visibility – media coverageRandom breath test vs selectiveBlitz vs regularShults, Elder, Sleet et al (2001)Review studies from12 RBT studies: average 18% decrease across outcomes11 SBT studies: average 20% decrease across outcomes
34Recently updated previous checkpoint review Added 15 studies from10 studies examined alcohol-involvedfatal crashes -> 8.9% decreaseOther 5 studies found decreases in:% drivers above .08 (28-64%)alcohol-involved fatalities/VMT (4.6%)alcohol-involved collisions (19%)nighttime crashes (22%)Task Force Finding“The Community Preventive Services Task Force recommends publicized sobriety checkpoint programs based on strong evidence of effectiveness in reducing alcohol-impaired driving.”
35DUI Checkpoints Key Resource: http://www. nhtsa DUI Checkpoints Key Resource: Common ChallengesGenerating community/political willFinding overtime dollars for policeEnsuring training on checkpoint best-practicesSupporting development of materials for dissemination at checkpointEnsuring visibility -- using media to publicize checkpoints before and after event
36Upstream DUI Enforcement It is too late once an intoxicated individual gets behind the wheelIt is difficult to identify and apprehend intoxicated driversIt has been estimated that less than 1/1000 DUI trips results in an arrest (Miller, Spicer, Levy, & Lestina, 1998)Car crashes are but one of the many negative health consequences associated with intoxicationFocusing exclusively on DUI enforcement may send the message that, as long as someone is not driving, it is OK to get intoxicated
37Have your coalition/group participated in sobriety checkpoints? Poll #2Have your coalition/group participated in sobriety checkpoints?Yes No
38Underage Compliance Checks Sting or Decoy buysPolice hire an underage (<21 years old) individual to attempt to purchase alcoholIf an illegal sale is made, citation issued to either the seller or the establishmentPenalty may vary from warning to a fine to a liquor license suspension/revocation (usually depending on previous citations)
39Compliance Check Effectiveness Growing research literature that compliance checks are effectiveCDC conducted a review of studies that examined ‘enhanced enforcement’ – programs that increased or intended to increase frequency of compliance checks8 studies fromall 8 studies examined sales to a decoyaverage 42% reduction3 studies examined alcohol consumption20% reduction2-7% reduction4-6% relative decrease
40Compliance Check Effectiveness Task Force Finding“The Community Preventive Services Task Force recommends enhanced enforcement of laws prohibiting sale of alcohol to minors, on the basis of sufficient evidence of effectiveness in limiting underage alcohol purchases. Further research will be required to assess the degree to which these changes in retailer behavior affect underage drinking.”source: Elder, Lawrence, Janes, et al. (2007). Enhanced enforcement of laws prohibiting sale of alcohol to minors: systematic review of effectiveness for reducing sales and underage drinking. Transportation Research E-Circular 2007;Issue E-C123:181-8.
41Compliance Checks Key Resource: http://www. udetc Compliance Checks Key Resource: Common ChallengesGenerating community/political supportGenerating police supportFinding overtime dollars for policeConvincing state Liquor Control to partnerBuilding support for prosecuting violators
42Has your coalition/group supported or sponsored compliance check? Poll #3Has your coalition/group supported or sponsored compliance check?Yes No
44Problem Setting: Residential Parties Party Patrols/Social Host LawsProblem Setting: Residential PartiesSon held drunken party for 600 friends after banishing parents to bedroom of their multi-million-dollar mansionBy Mail Foreign Service UPDATED: 20:55 EST, 14 October 2010
45Intent of Social Host Policies Change community CULTURE and CONDITIONSChange the FOCUS from underage drinker to provider/enablerDecrease PROVISIONDecrease furnishing alcohol to an underage personChange CONTEXT and SETTINGDeter underage drinking parties
46Social Host: the Evidence Viewed as a useful tool by law enforcement officers (Oceanside, CA and Vista, CA—see Evalcorp, 2009a)May result in changes in youth norms related to the riskiness of drinking (Long Beach City, NY—unpublished data)May result in fewer calls for service, either overall, or related to disturbances. For example, Petaluma, CA had 9.3% fewer calls for service related to disturbances from the year prior to passage (2006) to the second year after passage (2009) (Petaluma, CA—unpublished data).San Diego County had 8% fewer disturbance calls from the year preceding passage (2002) to the year following passage (2004) of its SHO (UDETC, 2003)
47Party PatrolsEnforcement strategy that targeting community high priority underage drinking party areas.arranged to both deter parties (through LE visibility) and find and address parties that are going on (through LE action).Law enforcement reports that party patrols can be effective deterrents if there are existing laws on the books that hold adults or other responsible parties accountable for underage drinking parties in homes.Are an important part of any community intervention to prevent underage and high risk drinking. They do tackle the high risk environments of home parties that we are describing and there is a strong evidence base behind them. These enforcement strategies, however, are only as good as the level of enforcement, visibility/community engagement (HV) and the policies that support them. Regarding home parties, for example, without policies that hold adults accountable for underage drinking taking place in their home, law enforcement often struggle to address and deter underage drinking parties in their community.
48Party DispersalAn ongoing party is often difficult for officers to “break it up” with maximum impact on deterring underage parties from happening in the future and preventing teens from fleeing the scene.Party dispersal training gives officers and departments a strong foundation to systematically address parties and hold underage drinkers and providers responsible.
49Landlord Lease Agreements Language that landlords include in leases that prohibit underage parties from occurring.There are often fines and penalties that escalate to eviction.Can effectively reduce the number of rental properties in which loud and unruly parties occur; if, strongly enforced and adopted by all/most landlords.
50Party Patrols/Social Host Laws Key Resource: http://www. udetc Party Patrols/Social Host Laws Key Resource: Common ChallengesIdentifying/adopting policy to enforceGenerating community/political support for policyGenerating police support to use resourcesFinding overtime dollars for policeTraining law enforcement to use enforcement techniquesBuilding support for prosecuting violators
51Has your coalition/group supported or sponsored party patrols? Poll #4Has your coalition/group supported or sponsored party patrols?Yes No
52Poll #5Has your coalition/group supported or sponsored the adoption of a social host ordinance?Yes No
53Three Enforcement Strategies Frequently Used By Coalitions Compliance checks for sales to minors at off-premise outletsParty patrols/social host lawsDUI checkpoints
54Which of these strategies are you most interested in considering? Poll #6Which of these strategies are you most interested in considering?DUI CheckpointsParty PatrolsSocial Host LawsCompliance ChecksLandlord Lease AgreementsWHY?????
55Questions About Enforcement Strategies to Reduce Alcohol Related Problems?
56Safer California Universities Project Goal: To evaluate the efficacy of a “Risk Management” approach to alcohol problem preventionNIAAA grant #R01 AA12516 with support from CSAP/SAMHSA.Bob Saltz:Prevention Research Center
57Integrated Intervention Strategies for Off-Campus Parties Compliance ChecksDUI Check PointsParty PatrolsPass Social Host “Response Cost” OrdinanceA Social Host Safe Party Campaign
58Practical Significance At each campus, 900 fewer students drinking to intoxication at off-campus parties and 600 fewer getting drunk at bars/restaurants during the fall semester at intervention schools relative to controls.Equivalent to 6,000 fewer incidents of intoxication at off-campus parties and 4,000 fewer incidents at bars & restaurants during the fall semester at Safer intervention schools relative to controls