Presentation on theme: "Lesson Three More Crime and Less Punishment --- II."— Presentation transcript:
Lesson Three More Crime and Less Punishment --- II
Content 1. Author 2. Alcatraz IslandAlcatraz Island 3. ParoleParole 4. Text Analysis Part I
I Author I Author Richard Moran Richard Moran is a criminologist and a leading expert on the insanity defense, capital punishment, and the history of the electric chair. His book The Executioner’s Current (Knopf, 2002) is the story of how the electric chair developed out of an effort by one nineteenth-century electric company to discredit the other.
II Alcatraz Island Alcatraz Island is one of Golden Gate National Recreation Area’s most popular destinations, offering a close-up look at a historic and infamous federal prison. Visitors to the island cannot only explore the remnants of the prison, but can also learn about the Indian occupation of , early military fortifications (the first U.S. fort on the coast), and the West Coast’s first (and oldest operating) lighthouse. These structures and the island’s many natural features are being preserved by the National Park Service.
III. Parole ( 假释 ) Parole, in criminal law, means release from prison of a convict before the expiration of his term on condition that his activities be restricted and that he report regularly to an officer. The convict generally remains under sentence, and the restrictions (as of residence, occupation, type of associates) and the supervision are intended to prevent a relapse into crime. Any violation of parole may result in return to imprisonment. The procedure of parole is regulated by statute in the jurisdictions of the United States.
It is less often administered directly by the executive than it is by a board or officer with the power to release a convict after he has served the minimum of an indeterminate. Parole is designed to give the prisoner a chance to readjust and to expedite the process of rehabilitation. It is less often administered directly by the executive than it is by a board or officer with the power to release a convict after he has served the minimum of an indeterminate sentence. Parole is designed to give the prisoner a chance to readjust and to expedite the process of rehabilitation.
IV Text Analysis Part I 1. If you are looking for…only look at the numbers: If you are trying to find out why we don’t deal with criminals severely, you can just look at the numbers — there are too many of them for the society to punish. 1) get tough with: to become harsh, severe, unyielding with sb. The government has decided to get tough with car smugglers. The school asked the police to get tough with the neighborhood bullies who were constantly shaking the children down. 2. This amounts to …than we are able to punish: each year more than 41 million crimes are committed, which is far more than the police can handle. 1) amount to sth: to be equal to, in quantity or in meaning, The seemingly polite letter amounts to a refusal. Her savings don’t amount to much. When he died, his debts amounted to 50 thousand dollars.
3. The best estimates suggest…for nontraffic offenses: According to the most favorable judgment, 36 million to 40 million people, amounting to 16 to 18 percent of the US population, have at some time been arrested for acts of wrongdoing, not including those of breaking traffic rules and regulations. 1) suggest: to state indirectly 暗示, 表明 His silence suggested disagreement. The figures suggest that the income of the local people is increasing. 4. We already have…in a prison cell: In this country, there are already 2.4 million people who are receiving punishment in one form or another; 412,000 of them are serving their prison terms / kept in prison. 1) under correctional supervision: a euphemism, meaning being disciplined, or being made to improve one’s behavior under the control / charge of the community, etc. as a punishment.
2) Lock sb. away: (informal) to put sb. in prison CF: lock sth. away/ up: to put sth. in a safe place and fasten the lock 把某物妥善锁起 a) She locks important papers away in a drawer. 3) cultural note: In the US, similar in Chinese, besides imprisonment, there are other forms of punishment. For example, young people who break the law can be put into a reform school / reformatory (in Britain, community home) where they receive training. Or the might be required to do community service work for a fixed number of hours.
5. This is why …crime rate goes up: this is why at the present moment not all crimes are punished and the punishment for crimes is less severe than before even though the crime rate is on the increase. Note: the writer’s choice of word to contrast crime rate and the severity of punishment: go up and go down. when: even though, in spite of the fact that As a comedian, he had to make the audience laugh when he had just got bad news from home. 6. Countries like …so little crime. give out: to announce publicly; here to enforce 宣布， 这里是执行，实施之意
2) cultural note: In some Islamic countries, such as Saudi Arabia and Yemen, severe punishment is enforced on crimes of any kind. For example, murderers are invariably put to death, and pickpockets, thieves and robbers are often punished, by having their hands cut off. 7. But can we afford…execute more than 22,000 murderers?: But can we cut off the hands of those who committed more than 35 million crimes of stealing, mugging or robbery each year? Can we put all of them into prison? Can we put to death the more than murderers each year? Can we do all that without arousing cries of protests? 1) property crimes: crimes involved in taking other people’s property illegally such as stealing, mugging and robbery.
2) Cultural Note: In the US, even when the suspect involved in a murder case is caught, he/she is more often than not found innocent because the accused is held “innocent until proven guilty” and is convicted “beyond reasonable doubt”, and it is not so easy to find evidence about which no reasonable doubt can be raised. 8. A decade of careful researches…reduces crime: although researches into the relationship between crime and punishment have been carried on for ten years, they can’t produce proof enough to show that severe punishment can reduce crime. fail to do sth: (formal) to be unable to do sth. Owing to a traffic jam, they failed to reach the airport for their flight.
9. We think that punishment…the other way around: we think that punishment helps prevent crime, but the opposite might be true: crime prevent punishment. 1) deter sth: to discourage, check or prevent sth. through the threat of sth. unpleasant. A heavy fine alone won’t deter shoplifting. The university enforces severe punishment to deter cheating in exams. CF: deter sb. from sth/doing sth: to make sb. decide not to do sth. or continue doing sth. esp by making them understand the difficulties and unpleasant results of their actions. e.g. Threats failed to deter him from continuing his research. The high prices of housing deter people from buying homes.
the other way around / round: the opposite situation To our surprise, the tiger didn’t kill the man. It was the other way round—the man killed the tiger.’ He didn’t divorce his wife. It was the other way round. 10. It just might be that…be punished: The situation might be that too much crime makes it impossible to punish all the criminals. When 16 to 18 percent of the US population commits crimes, what can you do about it? 1) decline in sth: gradual and continuous loss of strength, power, number, etc. ( 力量、权利、 数量等的 ) 消减
11. This is the situation… in today: This is the situation we are faced with today. find: to discover sb/ sth/ yourself doing sth. or in a particular situation, esp. when this is unexpected. When the old man came to, he found himself in bed at home. He unlocked and opened the drawer only to find his passport gone. He switched on the light and found a stranger standing in the middle of the room. 12. Just as the decline …get into prison: the increasing number of crimes has made it more difficult to get criminals into prison while the decreasing number of high-school graduates has made it easier ti be admitted into the college of a person’s choice. Note the irony in comparing university enrollment and imprisonment
13. While elite colleges…their correctional program: There is similarity between prison and universities in their recruiting policy. You’ve got to be outstanding candidates to get into the best colleges and universities. Similarly, certain prisons for dangerous criminals only accept those who have committed five serious crimes before being convicted for the present one. elite: adj, best, top, select, considered to be the best of their kind Note the sarcasm in this remark and the following one
14. Our current crop…in Alcatraz: Our present imprisoned criminal population is indeed composed of first-rate criminals. On the whole, they are much more serious law-breakers than those who were put in a prison for the dangerous criminals of the country in the thirty years between the early 1930s and early 1960s. crop of: ( 同时出现或产出的 ) 一群（人）； 一批（事物）