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6 th Milestones Meeting Global Campaign for Violence Prevention Mexico City, 13 November 2013 Towards Measurable Violence Prevention Targets: Tracking.

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Presentation on theme: "6 th Milestones Meeting Global Campaign for Violence Prevention Mexico City, 13 November 2013 Towards Measurable Violence Prevention Targets: Tracking."— Presentation transcript:

1 6 th Milestones Meeting Global Campaign for Violence Prevention Mexico City, 13 November 2013 Towards Measurable Violence Prevention Targets: Tracking Tests of Targeted Interventions: Triple-T Lawrence W. Sherman Cambridge University & University of Maryland

2 My Proposal The United Nations should fund the WHO to create a proactive global registry of every rigorous test of any intervention designed to prevent violence, with equal emphasis on 1. What works 2. What does NOT work 3. Where, in context

3 Please Raise Your Hands If you have ever heard of the Campbell Collaboration

4 TESTS OF INTERVENTIONS International Voluntary Effort Hosted by Norwegian Government Tiny Budget High standards, Systematic Reviews What Helps, What Harms? Education, Social Services, Crime

5 Many Interventions Prevent Violence Many not even designed for violence Some that are opposed for violence Yet may work well on violence Such as restorative justice conferences

6 Restorative Justice Conference

7 2-3 Hour Meeting Victims Offenders Family Friends Discuss three things: 1. What Happened? 2. Who was harmed and how? 3. What should offender do to repair?

8 Works Better for Violence

9 But Where Is The Evidence? Where Do We Know, not just Assume, that it Works? Mexico?No Burma?No Spain?No ENGLISH -SPEAKING COUNTRIES ONLY: Australia, UK, US

10 Are There Non-English Tests? Why don’t we know? 519 studies reviewed All in English Only10 met standards But others may exist Not in English Main obstacle: $$$$$$$$$$$$$

11 My Proposal The United Nations should fund the WHO to create a proactive global registry of every rigorous test of any intervention designed to prevent violence, with equal emphasis on 1. What works 2. What does NOT work 3. Where, in context

12 Definition of Evidence-Based Internal Validity Unbiased tests Effective where tested Well-specified model External Validity Replications Different settings Same results?

13 What Global Means Not that interventions work everywhere But that they works somewhere Evidence on where they do, or NOT Develop understanding of WHY, e. size Frances Gardner, Oxford—cross national

14 First Domestic Violence Arrest Experiment: Minneapolis Police Controlled Test Arrest, mediation, separation Arrest reduced repeat offending by 50%

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16 Domestic Violence: 1. Arrests deter employed men 2. Arrests make unemployed men more violent 3. Arrests deter men in areas of low unemployment 4. Arrests increase violence by men in areas of high unemployment

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18 Milwaukee: Repeat domestic violence per 1,000 suspects per year Omaha: Repeat domestic violence per 1,000 suspects per year Miami: Percent of Offenders with repeat domestic violence Arrested Warned Employed Unemployed Subgroups Vary

19 How Long Does it “Work” How long does it take to detect harm When we intervene with individuals What should the standard of care be? 6 months? 2 Years? 23 Years?

20 What We Don’t Know... Can kill us And other people Even when we are sincerely trying to help But sincerity is not evidence Fighting harmful practices is as important As promoting helpful practices Only TESTING can tell us the difference

21 Best—and Worst--Practices Best Practices Nurse-family partners Pre-school partners Hot spots patrols Restorative justice conferences Drug courts Juvenile diversion Problem-oriented policing Worst Practices Arrest for minor domestic disputes Police second responders to domestic calls Scared Straight DARE CCTV to prevent violence

22 Cambridge Somerville 1930s yr-old boys Random assignment Mentors—monthly Summer camp Health care 30-year followup Treatment kids died sooner More crime More mental illness Professor Joan McCord

23 Domestic abuse 2d Responders After crisis call 3-10 days later Police visit victim With social worker No offender home Provide info Follow-up No effect on injury More frequent DV

24 Chicago: Causing Crime

25 Effects of “Scared Straight” on Crime: 7 RCTs

26 CCTV Effect on Violence: Farrington Campbell Review Violence was reported in 23 evaluations, but CCTV had a desirable effect in reducing violence in only 3 cases (Airdrie, Malmö, and Shire Town). Overall, there was no effect of CCTV on violence. How much money spent on CCTV could be spent on interventions that work?

27 Good News on Hot Spots Policing—in US!!

28 Three new tests UK One under way in Caracas First district-level in Trinidad Marriage of epidemiology and intervention But still needs RCTs all over the world Trinidad murder rate 40 per100,000

29 Where Should Police Patrol: Crime Peaks or Crime Valleys?

30 Triple-T Against Crime Evidence- Based Prevention TargetingTestingTracking 30

31 Homicides & Shootings in 40 Trinidad Police Districts, 2 months Before and after September 2013: 20 Controls vs. 20 “TTT” Experimentals

32 My Proposal The United Nations should fund the WHO to create a proactive global registry of every rigorous test of any intervention designed to prevent violence, with equal emphasis on 1. What works 2. What does NOT work 3. Where, in context

33 A PROACTIVE Registry Seeking every day for newly reported tests In languages—(or at least 5!!) Contacting authors, obtaining copies Reviewing, coding, abstracting Entering in data base Studying external validity--generalizability Making results available in 100 languages A truly global project on what works

34 The Measureable Targets 1.Doubling the number of rigorous tests of interventions to prevent violence every five years, world-wide. 2.Doubling the number of tests every five years in each country. 3.Doubling the number of countries that have ever completed a rigorous test of such interventions within five years.

35 Funding Much more than doubling 6 million deaths a year What we invest in world peace We can invest in violence prevention

36 6 th Milestones Meeting Global Campaign for Violence Prevention Mexico City, 13 November 2013 Towards Measurable Violence Prevention Targets: THANK YOU Lawrence W. Sherman Cambridge University & University of Maryland


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