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Chapter 21 Sections 1-3. What is imperialism? The extension of a nation’s power over other lands Goal is to extend the nation’s power and dominate world.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 21 Sections 1-3. What is imperialism? The extension of a nation’s power over other lands Goal is to extend the nation’s power and dominate world."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 21 Sections 1-3

2 What is imperialism? The extension of a nation’s power over other lands Goal is to extend the nation’s power and dominate world politics and economics Why did imperialism increase after 1880? Wanted more markets and raw materials for their industries and direct control of these areas Gain advantage, politically and economically, over rivals Racism and Social Darwinism Religious motives – responsibility to civilize primitive people


4 Imperialism in Southeast Asia By 1900, Southeast Asia was almost entirely run by Western countries Great Britain Founded colony of Singapore in 1819 Became a major trade port Expanded west to protect possessions in India and to create trade route through southern China Takes control over Burma

5 British Colonial Empire

6 Imperialism in Southeast Asia France France has missionaries in Vietnam Alarmed by Britain’s move to monopolize trade To stop British from moving into Vietnam, forced Vietnamese to accept French protection Vietnam becomes a French protectorate A political unit that depends on another government for its protection Extends control to Cambodia and Laos Thailand (Siam) remains free

7 Imperialism in Southeast Asia United States Spanish-American War (1898) President McKinley believed it was his moral obligation to civilize other parts of the world Philippines becomes an American colony

8 United States France

9 Ruling the Colonies Governed by either direct rule or indirect rule Indirect rule – Local rulers are allowed to maintain their positions of authority and statues Lower cost of government Less effect on local culture Direct rule – Local elites are removed from power and replaced by a new set of rulers brought from the mother country Used when local officials resisted the foreign conquest

10 Colonial Economies Colonial powers didn’t want colonists developing their own industries Stressed the export of raw materials Workers’ wages kept low on plantations to increase owner’s profits Thousands died due to unhealthy conditions Colonial rule did bring some benefits Built railroads, highways Creation of an entrepreneurial class in colonies Some wealth in colonies develops

11 Resistance to Colonial Rule Initial resistance comes from ruling class of colonial country Peasant revolts to resist being driven off their lands These movements initially fail Beginning of 1900s a new resistance, based on nationalism, is more successful Begin trying to protect culture, interests of natives Later demand independence – 1930s

12 Empire Building in Africa Between 1880 and 1900, Africa becomes dominated by European rule West Africa Dominated by slave trade, but declines in the 1800s Slave trade illegal in United States and Britain (1808) Growing European presence due to natural resources Peanuts, timber, hides, palm oil France controls much of West Africa

13 Empire Building in Africa North Africa Egyptians seeking independence Europeans want to build a canal to connect the Mediterranean and Red Seas French sign a contract to build the Suez Canal After canal is built, Britain takes an interest Saw is as their “lifeline to India” Britain eventually dominates North Africa

14 Empire Building in Africa Central Africa Belgium dominates Central Africa East Africa Britain and Germany are rivals in East Africa Berlin Conference allows both to stay – no African delegates were present South Africa Area of largest population of white Europeans Dutch (aka Boers) and British dominate, battle with Zulu British battle with Dutch and Zulu, win and create an independent Union of South Africa


16 Colonial Rule in Africa By 1914, only independent African countries were Liberia and Ethiopia Most European governments ruled with indirect rule Britain used this in most areas, while other nations used a form of direct rule

17 Rise of African Nationalism New class of leaders emerges in Africa in 1900s Educated in colonial schools or Western countries Eager to introduce Western ideas and institutions Resented foreigners and their arrogance Recognized gap between theory and practice in colonial policies of democracy and equality Europeans express superiority in many ways Segregated facilities Lower salaries for Africans than Europeans in same jobs

18 Sepoy Mutiny British East India Company had its own soldiers, but also hired sepoys, Indian soldiers, to protect the company’s interests in the regions 1857 – growing distrust of British led to a revolt Immediate cause was a rumor about new bullets Sepoys refused to use them and were arrested Sepoys went on a rampage and killed 50 Europeans Revolt spread quickly, casualties high on both sides Parliament transferred power to British government People of India were now colonial subjects

19 British Colonial Rule in India British government ruled India directly through a viceroy, a governor who rules as the representative of a monarch Benefits of British rule Brought order and stability to a country divided New school system was set up Introduced railroads, telegraph, postal service Costs of British rule British manufactured goods destroyed local industry Forced farmers to grow cotton rather than food, decreasing the food supply Disrespect for Indian culture

20 Indian Nationalist Movement First Indian nationalists were upper class and English-educated Pushed for reform first, but it was too slow-moving, so turned to revolution Indian National Congress (INC) Worked toward independence for all Indians Still not very successful Mahandas Ghandi brings new life to struggle for independence Movement based on nonviolent resistance would eventually bring independence to India

21 Imperialism

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