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Napoleon Bonaparte Libertyville HS. Napoleon Seized Power 1799: asked to join conspiracy to overthrow Directory 1799: asked to join conspiracy to overthrow.

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Presentation on theme: "Napoleon Bonaparte Libertyville HS. Napoleon Seized Power 1799: asked to join conspiracy to overthrow Directory 1799: asked to join conspiracy to overthrow."— Presentation transcript:

1 Napoleon Bonaparte Libertyville HS

2 Napoleon Seized Power 1799: asked to join conspiracy to overthrow Directory 1799: asked to join conspiracy to overthrow Directory Why was Napoleon asked? Why was Napoleon asked? –Very popular general –Brought with the loyalty of the Army Coup successful; replaced Directory with Consulate Coup successful; replaced Directory with Consulate 1801: Napoleon became “First Consul” for life (dictator) 1801: Napoleon became “First Consul” for life (dictator)

3 Reforms of “Consul Napoleon” Improved schools Improved schools Clarified tax code Clarified tax code Built new roads Built new roads Established new law code Established new law code –Code Napoleon –Introduced Enlightenment principles into legal system Sold French lands in America to American government Sold French lands in America to American government

4 The Louisiana Purchase (1803) Napoleon had plan to defeat British in Carribbean Napoleon had plan to defeat British in Carribbean BUT French troops sent to Haiti, were defeated BUT French troops sent to Haiti, were defeated Napoleon realized he couldn’t defend US lands so he offered to sell to US for $0.03 per acre Napoleon realized he couldn’t defend US lands so he offered to sell to US for $0.03 per acre No one knew how big it was! No one knew how big it was!

5 Emperor Napoleon Crowned self emperor, in 1805 Crowned self emperor, in 1805 –Claimed to want to prevent Bourbon (royal family) from re-establishing monarchy –Hypocritical? Napoleon went on to conquer most of Europe Napoleon went on to conquer most of Europe –Power hungry conqueror or enlightenment liberator? –In states he conquered, he set up constitutions, law codes, abolished feudalism, fostered education, etc.

6 Emperor Napoleon “I closed the gulf of anarchy and brought order out of chaos. I rewarded merit regardless of birth or wealth, wherever I found it. I abolished feudalism and restored equality to all regardless of religion and before the law. I fought the decrepit monarchies of the Old Regime because the alternative was the destruction of all this. I purified the Revolution.”

7 Napoleonic Wars, : Coalition of Britain, Austria & Russia vs. France formed 1805: Coalition of Britain, Austria & Russia vs. France formed Austria, Russia attacked from East Austria, Russia attacked from East –Battle of Austerlitz (1805) Napoleon ordered invasion of England Napoleon ordered invasion of England Spanish, French fleet defeated by Brits at Trafalgar (1805) Spanish, French fleet defeated by Brits at Trafalgar (1805)

8 NW: Continental System Attempt to create a Europe wide boycott of English goods, trade Attempt to create a Europe wide boycott of English goods, trade Hurt English economy Hurt English economy Hurt European economy Hurt European economy Ultimately unsuccessful Ultimately unsuccessful

9 Napoleonic Wars : Another anti- French coalition formed: Prussia, Russia, England : Another anti- French coalition formed: Prussia, Russia, England –French conquered Prussians, defeat Russians France took over, ended HRE France took over, ended HRE Napoleon and Czar Alexander I Napoleon and Czar Alexander I –Decide to split up (Partition) Poland –Ended Holy Roman Empire Partition of 1795; Napoleon took the “Prussia” and “Austria” parts in 1807

10 NW: Peninsular War, Portugal wouldn’t take part in Continental System Portugal wouldn’t take part in Continental System Napoleon asked Spain to invade Portugal; they refused Napoleon asked Spain to invade Portugal; they refused Napoleon invaded Spain Napoleon invaded Spain Brits supported Spain, Portugal with money, weapons and troops Brits supported Spain, Portugal with money, weapons and troops Guerrilla warfare Guerrilla warfare War tied down several hundred thousand troops War tied down several hundred thousand troops

11 Napoleonic Wars: Invasion of Russia ( ) Russia stopped taking part in Continental System AND started massing troops on French / Polish border Russia stopped taking part in Continental System AND started massing troops on French / Polish border Napoleon invaded Russia w/ ½ million men Napoleon invaded Russia w/ ½ million men Russians retreated: “Scorched Earth” policy Russians retreated: “Scorched Earth” policy French captured Moscow French captured Moscow “General Winter” “General Winter” Losses Losses –French lost over 90% of army –Russians lost about 300,000 troops and several 100,000 civilians

12 Retreat and Abdication Napoleon continued to fight, but his empire fell apart Napoleon continued to fight, but his empire fell apart –Coalition against France: Russia, Prussia, England, Spain, Portugal Napoleon fought, but outnumbered 5 to 1 Napoleon fought, but outnumbered 5 to 1 Gave unconditional surrender, 4/11/14 Gave unconditional surrender, 4/11/14 French royalists restored Louis XVII to throne French royalists restored Louis XVII to throne Napoleon exiled to Elba Napoleon exiled to Elba

13 “The Hundred Days” Napoleon returned to France after hearing a rumor he was to be moved to different island Napoleon returned to France after hearing a rumor he was to be moved to different island March on Paris: 5 th regiment under Ney story March on Paris: 5 th regiment under Ney story King Louis XVII fled, and Napoleon began raising a new army King Louis XVII fled, and Napoleon began raising a new army

14 Battle of Waterloo (1815) Separate English & Prussian armies were in Belgium Separate English & Prussian armies were in Belgium Napoleon attacked Prussians, pushing them back Napoleon attacked Prussians, pushing them back Turned on British, who were led by Duke of Wellington Turned on British, who were led by Duke of Wellington British ground down French until Prussians showed up British ground down French until Prussians showed up

15 Exile and Death Napoleon exiled to St. Helena, a small island off coast of Africa Napoleon exiled to St. Helena, a small island off coast of Africa Died in 1821 Died in 1821 Legacy Legacy –One of the greatest military leaders, ever –Promoted growth of centralized European state –Spread enlightenment ideas throughout Europe –Stimulated nationalist movements throughout Europe

16 Congress of Vienna Meeting of all European countries to redraw map of Europe Meeting of all European countries to redraw map of Europe Major powers of meeting: Austria, England, Russia & Prussia - & France! Major powers of meeting: Austria, England, Russia & Prussia - & France! Goals Goals –Organize lasting peace –Contain, but don’t punish, France –Restore legit rulers

17 Congress of Vienna Significance of Congress Significance of Congress –Avoided a major European war for 100 years –Represented a conservative reaction to French Revolution –Peace and stability were exchanged for liberty, civil rights of French Rev. Good trade? Good trade?


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