Presentation on theme: "Course: International Security and Peace Utebayeva Bayan"— Presentation transcript:
1 Course: International Security and Peace Utebayeva Bayan World of intelligence: with emphasis on the US Intelligence Policy and CommunityCourse: International Security and PeaceUtebayeva Bayan
2 Questions:During the Cold War era the US had intervened in internal affairs of othercountries (mostly called the Third World countries) by launching “covert war” as opposed to “overt war”.What do you think had the primary motives of American decision making elites when they opted to use covert use of force instead of overtuse of force?Do you think a series of American covert war had achieved its purported political objectives?
3 Reading materials:David Isenberg, “The Pitfalls of U.S. Covert Operations”, Cato PolicyAnalysis No. 118 (April 7, 1989).Jaechun Kim, “U.S. Covert Action in Indonesia in the 1960s: Assessing theMotives and Consequences”, Journal of International and Area Studies9-2 (2002).Stephen Kinzer, “The Brothers: John Foster Dulles, Allen Dulles, and Their Secret World War” (2013)
4 Content: The definition of covert war/covert operation (covert vs clandestine)Motives of covert operationsCIA – the Dulles Brothers, scions of the American establishmentCovert operations: success or failure?
5 Covert vs ClandestineClandestine Operation: John is a trained thief, but we have no evident that he was there that night. Covert Operation: John is innocent, so he probably wasn'teven there. Black Operation: Rumor has it that John stole money from the bank and killed the person who found out about it, but it'sprobably nothing.
6 covert operation – “special activity” In 1976 from the final report of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence: any clandestine activity designed to influence foreign governments, events, organizations, or persons insupport of the US foreign policyFormer CIA director S. Turner: “… a term that describes efforts to influence the course of events in a foreign country without our role being known”Covert operation – “foreign counterintelligence purpose”
8 CIA (1947)– covert actions became the top priority Covert operations as a Cold War weaponCovert actions against communism
9 The dulles brothers – the beginning of covert operations The dulles brothers – the beginning of covert operations? Siblings who control overt and covert sides of the us foreign policy
10 John Foster Dulles served as U.S. Secretary of State under Republican President Dwight D. Eisenhower from 1953 to He was a significantfigure in the early ColdWar era, advocating anaggressive stance againstcommunism throughoutthe world
11 Allen Welsh Dulles was an American diplomat and lawyer who became the first civilian Director of Central Intelligence and its longest-serving director to date
13 Third world neutralists “six monsters” that the Dulles brothers believed had to be brought down: Mohammed Mossadegh in Iran, Jacobo Arbenz in Guatemala, Ho Chi Minh in Vietnam, Sukarno in Indonesia, Patrice Lumumba in the Congo and Fidel Castro in Cuba.
14 Covert operation: success or failure? 1953 overthrow of Mohammed Mossadegh in Iran1954 overthrow of Jacobo Arbenz in Guatemala1963 attempt to assassinate Fidel Castro in Cuba1963 overthrow of Juan Bosch in the Dominican Republic1964 defeat of rebel forces loyal to Patrice Lumumba in the Congo1965 propaganda campaign to overthrow the Sukarnogovernment in Indonesia1970 overthrow of Norodom Sihanouk in Cambodia
16 Covert operation: success or failure? In 1961 the President's Board of Consultants on Foreign Intelligence told President Eisenhower, "We have been unable to conclude that, on balance, all of the covert action programs undertaken by the CIA up to this time have been worth the risk or the great expenditure of manpower, money and other resources involved."Covert operations left bitter seeds that would grow into difficult problems for a future generation of U.S. policymakers