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Course: International Security and Peace Utebayeva Bayan.

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1 Course: International Security and Peace Utebayeva Bayan

2 During the Cold War era the US had intervened in internal affairs of other countries (mostly called the Third World countries) by launching “covert war” as opposed to “overt war”. What do you think had the primary motives of American decision making elites when they opted to use covert use of force instead of overt use of force? Do you think a series of American covert war had achieved its purported political objectives?

3 David Isenberg, “The Pitfalls of U.S. Covert Operations”, Cato Policy Analysis No. 118 (April 7, 1989). Jaechun Kim, “U.S. Covert Action in Indonesia in the 1960s: Assessing the Motives and Consequences”, Journal of International and Area Studies 9-2 (2002). Stephen Kinzer, “The Brothers: John Foster Dulles, Allen Dulles, and T heir Secret World War” (2013) hen-kinzer.html

4 The definition of covert war/covert operation (covert vs clandestine) Motives of covert operations CIA – the Dulles Brothers, scions of the American establishment Covert operations: success or failure?

5 Clandestine Operation: John is a trained thief, but we have no evident that he was there that night. Covert Operation: John is innocent, so he probably wasn't even there. Black Operation: Rumor has it that John stole money from the bank and killed the person who found out about it, but it's probably nothing.

6 In 1976 from the final report of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence: any clandestine activity designed to influence foreign governments, events, organizations, or persons in support of the US foreign policy Former CIA director S. Turner: “… a term that describes effort s to influence the course of events in a foreign country witho ut our role being known” Covert operation – “foreign counterintelligence purpose”

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8 CIA (1947)– covert actions became the top priority Covert operations as a Cold War weapon Covert actions against communism

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10 John Foster Dulles served as U.S. Secretary of State under Republican President Dwight D. Eisenhower from 1953 to He was a significant figure in the early Cold War era, advocating an aggressive stance against communism throughout the world

11 ALLEN WELSH DULLES WAS AN AMERICAN DIPLOMAT AND LAWYER W HO BECAME THE FIRST CIVILIAN DIRECTOR OF CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AND ITS LONGEST-SERVING DIRECTOR TO DATE

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13 “six monsters” that the Dulles brothers believed had to be brought down: Mohammed Mossadegh in Iran, Jacobo Arbenz in Guatemala, Ho C hi Minh in Vietnam, Sukarno in Indonesia, Patrice Lumumba in the Congo and Fidel Castro in Cuba.

14 1953 overthrow of Mohammed Mossadegh in Iran 1954 overthrow of Jacobo Arbenz in Guatemala 1963 attempt to assassinate Fidel Castro in Cuba 1963 overthrow of Juan Bosch in the Dominican Republic 1964 defeat of rebel forces loyal to Patrice Lumumba in th e Congo 1965 propaganda campaign to overthrow the Sukarno government in Indonesia 1970 overthrow of Norodom Sihanouk in Cambodia

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16 In 1961 the President's Board of Consultants on Forei gn Intelligence told President Eisenhower, "We have be en unable to conclude that, on balance, all of the cove rt action programs undertaken by the CIA up to this ti me have been worth the risk or the great expenditure of manpower, money and other resources involved." Covert operations left bitter seeds that would grow into difficult problems for a future generation of U.S. policy makers

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