Supervision and Leadership Supervision : 1- close supervision : _ reduce the worker's effectiveness. _ jobs requiring high quality and low time limit need close supervision. _ new workers need close supervision than old workers.
Supervision and Leadership 2- general supervision: _ gives the employees a chance to develop their talents: they learn to make decisions. _ they take pride in their work. _ improve productivity and show less absenteeism. _ the supervisor also gets more time to spend on his other functions.
Leadership It is interpersonal influence exercised in order to guide people toward goal achievement. Leadership traits : 1- leaders are self confident, well-integrated, and emotionally stable. 2- leaders want to take leadership responsibility and are competent in handling new situations. 3- leaders identify with the goals and values of the groups they lead. 4- they are warm, sensitive, and sympathetic toward other people, and give practical suggestions. 5- they are intelligent in relation to other group members.
Leadership Styles 1- autocratic leaders : These leaders give orders for everything and provide no freedom of work for subordinates, needed during crises. 2- participative leaders: These leaders invite participation from subordinates to exercise their responsibility and freedom. 3- free-reign leaders: They give the group complete freedom to decide, having made clear the goals and guidelines to achieve it. This style is seen, to some degree, among professionals like engineers, teachers, and scientists.
Morale Morale is the attitude of each individual in a group toward the group's purpose and goals. Improving morale : 1- delegating power to an employee to carry out a task without interference from top-level management. 2- group decisions can be taken and flexibility in working hours can be allowed. 3- job rotation and job enrichment relieve monotony and make the person to work hard.
Tri-Dimensional Grid 3-dimensional grid also known as 3-D management: _ task orientation TO: defined as the extent to which a manager directs his subordinate's efforts towards goal attainment. _ relationship orientation RO : defined as the extent to which a manager has personal relationship. _ effectiveness : defined as the extent to which a manager is successful in his positions.
Communication Communication helps managerial planning to be performed organization to be carried out actuating to be followed and controlling to be applied effectively. Types of communication : _ formal communication _ informal communication _ downward communication _ upward communication _ horizontal communication _ oral communication _writing communication _communication by gestures
Efficient and Effective Communication Efficient communication attempts to minimize time and cost in the total information exchange. Effective communication in choosing the formal or informal channels of communication to maximize company performance and employee growth.
Purpose of Communication 1- to increase acceptance of organizational rules by subordinates in allowing them to : exchange views, resolve ambiguities. 2- to gain greater commitment to organizational objectives by motivating, controlling, and evaluating the performance of organizational personnel. 3- to provide data necessary for decision-making. 4- to clarify task responsibilities, identify authority positions, and provide accountability for performance.
Communication Process Communication researchers have raised the following questions : 1- who ? 2- says what ? 3- in which channel ? 4- to whom? 5- with what effect?
General Model Step 1 : sender-planner or message sender. Step 2 : encoding include : speaking, writing,signaling, gesturing, physical contacts. Step 3 : message and medium, it is the actual physical transmission of the conceptualized message. Step 4 : receiving, the physical reception of the message. Step 5 and 6 : decoding and response, it is the receiver's interpretation of the message. Step 7 : feedback, receiver's reaction of the message.
Barriers to Effective Communication 1- lack of openness : communication is between persons and is subject to all the influence that condition human behavior. 2- filtering : person may filter a communication if one feels it will harm one,s chances of promotion. 3- degree of motivation : the enthusiasm displayed and the interests shown definitely condition the communication. 4- either-or thinking : person is committed to a position where compromising or viewing a situation correctly is not feasible. 5- assumptions : make assumptions about a working environment and the people in it.
Barriers to Effective Communication 6- snap reactions : when the receiver feels that little will be gained by listening or reading carefully, the communication is almost certain to be ineffective. 7- fear : when emotionally loaded words like : failure, death, strike,liar, and defeat are used. 8- language : the meaning of words is influence by association. 9- time constraints. 10- perception : the way in which we individually interpret messages from other people or sources.
Barriers to Effective Communication 11- stereotyping : about a class of people, objects, or events that are widely held by a given culture. 12- halo effect : a process in which a general impression which is favorable or unfavorable is used by judges to evaluate several specific traits. 13- projection: is tending to attribute one's own undesirable personal traits to another.
Means to Effective Communication 1- recognize the role of the receiver as active. 2- develop a close relationship with the subject being assessed. 3- create a climate that is favorable to the free flow of information. 4- be aware of the uniqueness of your own frame of reference.
Using Human Relation Tool 1- plan, plan : take time to plan effective communication. 2- create positive climate : seek to establish a work environment that encourages upward communication. 3- use the grapevine : circulating information or gossip or even a baseless rumor. 4- empathize : the information being communicated is vital to the participants needs. 5- use pictures: be sure the visual is relevant to the idea being communicated. 6- be open to feedback: it enables manager to improve personal communication. 7- avoid over communication.
Motivation It is the state of individual's perspective, which represent the strength of his/her propensity to exert effort towards some particular behavior. Traditional approach to motivation : “carrot and stick” the assumption has been that people will work harder and produce more if substantial financial rewards are placed before them or if they are threatened with dismissal or peer embarrassment or physical punishment.
Need theories Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory _hygiene factors : are dissatisfiers because if all of them are adequately met with in a work situation, people will not be dissatisfied. _ motivating factors : these factors are aspects of the task or work itself.
Need theories Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory