Presentation on theme: "A DOLESCENTS AND Y OUTH “M ASCULINITY AND THE P REVENTION OF S EXUAL V IOLENCE ” Thomas John Holmes President, CariMAN (Dominica) Chapter Inc. Guidance."— Presentation transcript:
A DOLESCENTS AND Y OUTH “M ASCULINITY AND THE P REVENTION OF S EXUAL V IOLENCE ” Thomas John Holmes President, CariMAN (Dominica) Chapter Inc. Guidance Counsellor, Ministry of Education Commonwealth of Dominica
Caribbean Male Action Network (CariMAN) Vision: A community of caring men, committed to partnering with women to create a just world where all people achieve their fullest potential. cariman.org
C ARIBBEAN M ALE A CTION N ETWORK C ARI MAN Mission Statement : To engage Caribbean men in the examination of existing beliefs and norms, the promotion of respect for diversity and the development of new paradigms and competencies, thus creating opportunities to negotiate new relationships in order to achieve gender justice, social harmony and peaceful partnerships. cariman.org
P RINCIPLES OF THE I NTERNATIONAL C ONFERENCE ON P OPULATION AND D EVELOPMENT (ICPD) P ROGRAM OF A CTION : C AIRO, E GYPT, S EPTEMBER 1994 1. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. 4. Advancing gender equality and equity and the empowerment of women, and the elimination of all kinds of violence against women 8. Everyone has the right to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health. 9. The family is the basic unit of society and as such should be strengthened
C ARI MAN P RINCIPLES THAT COMPLEMENT P RINCIPLES OF THE ICPD The belief that Caribbean Men should be advocates for Gender Equality and Social Justice; Caribbean men can choose to live non violent lives and should advocate against all forms of abuse of power and Gender-Based Violence; The spiritual beliefs Caribbean people hold as important can contribute to positive livelihood and peaceful co-existence; and Commitment to family and healthy relationships
O BJECTIVES OF THE ICPD H UMAN S EXUALITY To promote adequate development of responsible sexuality, promoting relations of equity and mutual respect of genders and contributing to improving the quality of life of individuals To ensure that women and men have access to the information, education and services needed to achieve good sexual health and exercise their reproductive rights and responsibilities
D EFINITION OF S EXUAL V IOLENCE The World Health Organization (WHO) defines sexual violence as: ‘Any sexual act, attempt to obtain a sexual act, unwanted sexual comments or advances, or acts to traffic or otherwise directed against a person’s sexuality using coercion, by any person regardless of their relationship to the victim, in any setting, including but not limited to home and work’
S EXUAL V IOLENCE ON G IRLS In Canada young women from marginalized racial, sexual and socioeconomic groups are more vulnerable to being targeted for sexual harassment and sexual assault (Wolfe and Chiodo, CAMH, 2008, p. 3.) 27% of Grade 11 female students in a Centre for Addiction and Mental Health survey admitted being pressured to do something sexual against their will. 15% of respondents reported having oral sex just to avoid having intercourse (Wolfe and Chiodo, CAMH, 2008, p. 3.)
S EXUAL V IOLENCE ON A DOLESCENTS A 2008 survey among adolescents in Barbados, Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago between 52% and 73% reported experiences of sexual violence A 2000 school-based study in several Caribbean countries found that among sexually active adolescents, almost half reported that their first sexual act was “forced” or “somewhat forced” An estimated 150 million girls under the age of 18 suffered some form of sexual violence in 2002 1 in 6 boys is sexually abused before the age of 18. 1 in 4 girls is sexually abused before the age of 18.
M YTHS ON S EXUAL ABUSE OF B OYS Boys can’t be sexually used or abused, and if one is, he can never be a “real man.” Sexual abuse is less harmful to boys than girls. Most sexual abuse of boys is committed by homosexual males. Boys abused by males must be gay or will become gay. If a female used or abused a boy, he was “lucky,” and if he doesn’t feel that way there’s something wrong with him. Boys who are sexually abused will go on to abuse others.
S EXUAL VIOLENCE AGAINST B OYS AND G IRLS /LGBT Recent survey on Bullying and Sexual Violence: 5% of boys and 2% of girls spread a sexual rumor 26% boys and 24% girls reported homophobic teasing directed at a friend Both boys and girls reported making sexual comments and calling others gay or lesbians
C OMMON CAUSES FOR S EXUAL V IOLENCE Poor parenting skills Lack of/inadequate parental supervision Inadequate/limited sex education in schools Being socialized into values of deviant behaviour Poor self-esteem leading to Bullying Illegal substances/substance abuse Exercising false manhood based on control and dominating acts and attitudes
R EASONS FOR NOT R EPORTING S EXUAL VIOLENCE (SV) It is estimated that only around 5% of victims report Sexual Violence incident to police. Key reasons for not reporting a) stigma, shame and fear of discrimination; b) fear of reprisals from the perpetrator; c) feelings of guilt; d ) complexity of reporting the crime; e) lack of support from family and friends; f) expectation that the law enforcement would be ineffective or even abusive.
C ONSEQUENCES OF SEXUAL VIOLENCE BASED ON A 2005 WHO R EPORT Death and injury Depression Alcohol use problems Unwanted pregnancy and abortion STIs including HIV, gynaecological complications such as vaginal bleeding or infection, fibroids, decreased sexual desire, genital irritation, pain during intercourse, chronic pelvic pain and urinary tract infections (Jewkes et al., 2002).
C ONSEQUENCES OF S EXUAL V IOLENCE In Costa Rica and Peru, studies indicated that more than 90% of pregnancies among girls younger than 15 years of age were the result of incest (García-Suárez, 2006; Rico, 1996). A study from Haiti found that victims of sexual violence were significantly more likely to have experienced recent STI symptoms than other women not presenting as victims of sexual violence (Gómez et al., 2009).
M ALES I NTERVENTION IN P REVENTING S EXUAL V IOLENCE Be mindful of strengths and weaknesses including power of words and actions Always ensure that having sex is consensual Avoid substance abuse that will distort good judgment, decision-making and reasoning Join or create a club or organization to engage males in discussions on Gender- Based Violence, sexual violence and social issues
CDC C ONTINUUM OF P REVENTION OF V IOLENCE : Primary Prevention: Approaches that take place before sexual violence has occurred to prevent initial perpetration or victimization. Secondary Prevention: Immediate responses after sexual violence has occurred to deal with the short-term consequences of violence. Tertiary Prevention: Long-term responses after sexual violence has occurred to deal with the lasting consequences of violence and sex offender treatment interventions.
A DOLESCENTS AND Y OUTH P REVENTING S EXUAL V IOLENCE Be role models and mentors to help youth in enhancing their self-esteem Be responsible and accountable for your sexuality and know your sexual limits and desires Let your “No” be “No” Promote healthy lyrics in songs (some lyrics can incite sexual violence)
G OVERNMENT /M INISTRY OF E DUCATION Engage males in non-violence Programs such as Partners for Peace Program Implement in and out of school Programs including Character Counts! and Child Friendly Schools Include Parenting Skills Programs in the curriculum at senior secondary schools Implement Anti-Bullying Policies Improve Health and Family Life Program Engage stakeholders in meaningful discussions on LGBT